FSC Market Survey Letter

FSC International Center GmbH • Charles-de-Gaulle-Straße 5 •

53113 Bonn • Germany

April 16, 2016

Subject: Market Survey by Ecosystem Market place on behalf of FSC IC To Whom It May Concern:

I am writing to inform you that FSC forest management certificate holders are being contacted by Genevieve Bennett from Ecosystem Marketplace to participate in a survey about ecosystem services. Ecosystem Marketplace is doing this work for FSC to support our work in this area.

Thank you and kind regards,

Chris Henschel

Program Manager, Ecosystem Services

FSC Market Survey Letter Spanish

FSC International Center GmbH • Charles-de-Gaulle-Straße 5 •

53113 Bonn • Germany

21 Abril 2016

Asunto: Estudio de Mercado por Ecosystem Marketplace en nombre de FSC IC

Le escribo para informarle de que los titulares de certificados FSC de gestión forestal están contactados por Genevieve Bennett del Ecosystem Marketplace para participar en una encuesta a propósito de los servicios ecosistémicos. Ecosystem Marketplace está haciendo este trabajo para FSC para apoyar nuestro trabajo en esta área.

Gracias y saludos cordiales,

Chris Henschel

Program Manager, Ecosystem Services

Rahr Malting Company, Watershed Based Permitting

This short update states that Rahr Malting Company successfully created phosphorous reductions through nonpoint source pollution reductions. The company exceeded its permit of 150 pounds of CBOD reductions per day by completing four trades resulting in 204 pounds of reductions per day.

Atlas of International Freshwater Agreements

This is a comprehensive list and information source of historic agreements related to freshwater. With sections for each continent, tables and maps of key demographic and ecosystem information it puts the agreements in their social and environmental context. These agreements are the base from which ecosystem service transactions will build.

A Role for Effective, Efficient, and Equitable Conservation Concessions in Conserving Natural Resources in Indonesia.

In this paper, CCIF explains that conservation concessions enable host countries to capitalize on their ample supply of biodiversity-rich habitats and stimulate economic development by mimicking the payment structure of other business transactions and offer immediate, transparent protection for resources in question. The conservation community may have been quick to dismiss concessions for protected areas as a tool for developing countries. Indeed, with modifications based on local community norms, CCIF believes that concessions may be the perfect tool for conservation. By studying our competition in the commercial extraction industry, we find that we do in fact have an effective set of tools for creating protected areas. CCIF is currently designing a fund to establish and fund conservation concessions in Southeast Asia.

13 + 1: A Comparison of Global Climate Change Policy Architectures

Critically reviews the Kyoto Protocol and thirteen alternative policy architectures for addressing the threat of global climate change. The authors employ six criteria to evaluate the policy proposals: environmental outcome, dynamic efficiency, cost effectiveness, equity, flexibility in the presence of new information, and incentives for participation and compliance. The paper identifies several major themes among the alternative proposals: Kyoto is “too little, too fast”; developing countries should play a more substantial role and receive incentives to participate; implementation should focus on market-based approaches, especially those with price mechanisms; and participation and compliance incentives are inadequately addressed by most proposals. Finally, the investigation reveals tensions among several of the evaluative criteria, such as between environmental outcome and efficiency, and between cost-effectiveness and incentives for participation and compliance.

13 + 1: A Comparison of Global Climate Change Policy Architectures

Critically reviews the Kyoto Protocol and thirteen alternative policy architectures for addressing the threat of global climate change. The authors employ six criteria to evaluate the policy proposals: environmental outcome, dynamic efficiency, cost effectiveness, equity, flexibility in the presence of new information, and incentives for participation and compliance. The paper identifies several major themes among the alternative proposals: Kyoto is “too little, too fast”; developing countries should play a more substantial role and receive incentives to participate; implementation should focus on market-based approaches, especially those with price mechanisms; and participation and compliance incentives are inadequately addressed by most proposals. Finally, the investigation reveals tensions among several of the evaluative criteria, such as between environmental outcome and efficiency, and between cost-effectiveness and incentives for participation and compliance.

Endowment Model

A Powerpoint presentation given at the 5th World Parks Congress in Durban, South Africa, on the endowment model for marine protected area financing in Southeast Asia.

Funding Opportunities for Pollinator Protection in North America: A Report for the Pollinator Protection Campaign with support from the Turner Foundation.

The purpose of this paper is to identify strategic opportunities for pollinator protection in North America. This work provides strategic approaches for active organizations dedicated to pollinator protection as well as for current and potential funders with funding opportunities for pollinator protection. Two major funding needs to further the field of pollinator protection were identified: one, gathering compelling evidence and two, strategic activities with large landowners. Currently, very few funders have made pollinator protection a focus of their programmatic grant making. There is a need to bring funders supporting related projects, such as biodiversity conservation and sustainable food systems, on board. The funding opportunities outlined in this report provide several examples that may be of interest to them.

Carbon annuities and their potential to preserve tropical forests and slow global warming: an application for small-scale farmers

Carbon annuities have been suggested as a means for rewarding landowners for preserving forests and sequestering carbon. Although this is an intuitively appealing approach, the benefits of the sequestration activities have not been compared with the opportunity cost of preserving the forest. This paper represents an initial attempt at analysing how large carbon annuities must be to induce a landowner in the Amazonian rainforest to accept the annuity and leave the forest intact. The benefits of carbon sequestration are computed based on estimates in the literature on the carbon contained in a hectare of rainforest and the damages associated with a ton of carbon emissions. This is compared with information on household income from Rondonia, Brazil. Our results show that, for the majority of our conservative assumptions about the damages of carbon emissions, the magnitude of an annuity is greater than the income from agriculture. For less conservative assumptions about the damages from global warming, a fraction of the annuity would be a sufficient incentive for small-scale farmers to switch to sustainable techniques that leave the forest intact.

Biodiversity, Climate, and the Kyoto Protocol: Risks and Opportunities

This paper outlines the potential risks and opportunities associated with the Kyoto Climate Treaty with regards to biodiversity conservation. The authors argue that the Kyoto Protocol as currently written does little to advance solutions that benefit biodiversity, and in many ways could unwittingly promote further biodiversity loss from the kinds of projects it encourages, such as biomass monoculture plantations and hydro dams. They go on to discuss the sorts of carbon sequestration projects that have the potential to deliver impressive biodiversity and community benefits, and recommend that climate policymakers adopt rules and frameworks that will encourage the development of such “multiple benefit” projects.

Capturing Carbon and Conserving Biodiversity

In this book, ecologists, conservationists, lawyers, and atmospheric scientists detail the benefits of alternative market-based systems for reducing and sequestering the carbon emissions currently threatening the planet with global warming and the destruction of animal and human habitat. Swingland (a conservation biologist with The Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology) edits 20 chapters including electricity generation options for reduction in carbon emissions, species survival and carbon retention in commercially exploited tropical rainforest, and a legal analysis of carbon sinks and emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol. The book is most likely to appeal to the climate policy audience.

A Knowledge and Assessment Guide to Support the Development of Payment Arrangements for Watershed Ecosystem Services (PWES)

The authors contend that payments for watershed ecosystem services are frequently based of generalizations that may not be true in the watersheds where the program operates. Through tackling common myths about watershed management and looking at the need for monitoring and information collection, good science and institutional arrangements are encouraged to assure the intended results are produced from payment programs.

Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services and the UN Millennium Declaration

This paper begins to examine the close and critical relationships among: biodiversity and ecosystem services; the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD); and the goals set out in the UN Millennium Declaration, in particular the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Red-cockaded Woodpecker Conservation Banking

Can a large forest products company manage its lands for timber production and also increase habitat occupied by an endangered species? A plan developed by International Paper, Environmental Defense, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources is proving that it's possible.

Markets for ecosystem services: Applying the concepts

This paper explores definition and measurement of ecosystem services, development of institutions and mechanisms to facilitate trade and integration of these instruments into the broader natural resource management agenda and toolbox, all with respect to pilot markets for ecosystem services in three case study catchments. Emphasis is placed on pilot selection rationale and identification of key facilitative mechanisms and institutions.

IPCC Special Report on Land Use, Land-Use Change And Forestry

This Special Report discusses the global carbon cycle and how different land use and forestry activities currently affect standing carbon stocks and emissions of greenhouse gases. It also looks forward and examines future carbon uptake and emissions that may result from employing varying definitional scenarios and carbon accounting strategies, linked to the Kyoto Protocol, within the forestry and land-use sectors.

Evaluation of the Americas Account of Colombia

This evaluation has two areas of focus: (1) a general evaluation of the Enterprise for the Americas Environment Account (Americas Account) for Colombia, and (2) an institutional evaluation of ECOFONDO and the FFEA, the two organizations that have administered the Account. However, since ECOFONDO has not managed the Americas Account since 2000, emphasis has been given to the institutional evaluation of the FFEA.

The Link Between Biodiversity and Sustainable Development: Lessons from INBio's Bioprospecting Program in Costa Rica.

This paper looks at the role of INBio's facilitation of bioprospecting to Costa Rica's quest to protect its biological wealth while simultaneously promoting the social and economic development. Gí¡mez concludes that INBio has assisted in Costa Rica's sustainable development by providing the country with vast and complex experience on access, legislation and uses of genetic and biochemical resources that facilitates the sustainable use of the country's biodiversity.

The "Sale" of Biodiversity to Nature Tourists

This OECD study explains that, when public or private natural areas charge entrance or other access fees to tourists, they in effect sell biodiversity to visitors. This market is perhaps the easiest to create in the context of natural area services, and resulting fee revenues can make substantial contributions to conservation. Indeed, tourism's financial and non-financial benefits often are important justifications for the establishment and management of natural areas. Nonetheless, many areas do not charge fees. Arguments for and against fees are described, and price responsiveness is discussed. Lastly, the conservation contribution of private reserves is reviewed.

Economic Valuation of Wetlands on the River Basin Scale

The Ramsar discussion paper Economic Valuation of Wetlands on the River Basin Scale examines wetland ecosystem goods and services and relevant economic valuation methods, their applications, and constraints and limitations to their use. The paper provides an introduction to the concept of wetland ecosystem services and a menu of valuation methods with general and specific caveats related to their use.

Fish and Wildlife Service Releases Conservation Banking Policy

Environmental Defense (ED) lauds the creation of formal guidance on conservation banking. ED explains that "federal guidelines were clearly needed and should ensure greater consistency in the Fish and Wildlife Service's approach to banking, but that the failure of the Service to invite public comment on the guidance is ill-advised and the new conservation banking policy, which is ambiguous or unclear in a number of places, would have benefited from outside scrutiny."

CDM Market Overview

Point Carbon presentation from the 2003 SE Asia Forum on GHG Mitigation, Market Mechanisms and Sustainable Development. Nice overview of CDM demand by country (in terms of preferred kinds of projects and payment terms), offset supply by country, and potential price drivers.

When Money Flows Upstream: Payment for Watershed Services in Guatemala

This presentation given at the 2003 Katoomba Group meeting in Switzerland outlines a project by WWF in Central America to develop a Water Fund that would engage willing and financially able water users to pay for water related ecosystem services from the Sierra de las Minas Biosphere Reserve in Guatemala. The presentation outlines the steps to create a financial linkage between ecosystem services and the benefits to downstream users, as well as the watershed management opportunities to sustain and enhance these ecosystem services. The presentation concludes with an important set of considerations for anyone attempting to establish a market system for ecosystem services.

Market-Based Instruments: The Forum Approach

"The Water Initiative is a World Economic Forum program to ""an initiative to facilitate
multistakeholder cooperation in the management of water and watersheds 'from the summit to the sea.'"" The program involves public-private partnerships that identify opportunities for payments for environmental services and the exchange of best practices. The presentation also give an overview of the Global Greenhouse Gas Register that allows companies to understand their green house gas emissions, their impacts and opportunities to reduce and offset them."