This book aims to provide a conceptual framework and examples of successful initiatives of market creation that acts as an incentive for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. The conceptual framework used is based on the principles of public and private goods. These are measured according to the extent of 'rivalry and excludability' they possess. Rivalry is defined as the extent to which one person's consumption depletes others' ability to use it and excludability as the extent to which people can be excluded from the resource, e.g. by charging for entry.