This paper examines how additionality, baselines and leakage have been assessed for several afforestation/reforestation (A/R) projects underway in 2003. It identifies trends and draws lessons from this experience that could be useful when agreeing on the modalities and procedures for including A/R projects into the CDM for the first commitment period. The paper concludes that the risk of free-rider projects can be significantly reduced by incorporating relatively small changes into the definitions of additionality, baseline and baseline approach that are set to be agreed for A/R CDM projects at COP9. The authors discuss how the importance of leakage can be reduced through careful project design and siting.
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