Cap-and-Trade programs have come full circle. As governments, investors, and businesses become increasingly sensitive to carbon emissions levels and global-warming, global cap-and-trade mandates are creating challenges for municipalities and businesses on an economy-wide scale. New compliance issues mean new corporate strategies, manufacturing methods and means for product and service delivery. At the same time unique opportunities arise for financial brokers, green technology providers, B2B/B2C service providers, energy providers, the legal community, and investors. According to a recent report by the International Emissions Trading Association and the World Bank, “CO2 trading was worth more than 10 billion dollars in 2005, 10 times the value of 2004” and, as reported in a recent American Lawyer article, the market could reach as much as 50 billion dollars. In the U.S. and beyond, it is no longer a matter of if, but when and how. Understanding the opportunities and the pitfalls could be the difference in grabbing this financially beneficial and socially conscious brass ring or missing the boat.