Developing pro-poor markets for environmental services in the Philippines

This study reviews the various initiatives in the Philippines to develop markets for different types of environmental service, and also discusses the institutional support mechanisms that have emerged. It identifies a number of market initiatives already in operation, mostly in the form of entrance fees to national parks, but shows that for other types of environmental service, much preparatory work for market development has been done, including valuation studies and proposals for payment mechanisms. Government involvement has been key to market development in the Philippines but there have also been some community based initiatives. The study tests a framework for evaluating and monitoring markets for environmental services in two cases: a protected area and a Department of Energy reforestation and environmental management fund. The conclusion drawn is that environmental investments are unlikely to be made unless the basic social needs of communities are met.

Environmental Service 'Payments': Experiences, Constraints and Potential in The Philippines

This case study "reviews the form of incentives or rewards that have been provided to upland communities in a number of sites under different management leadership in the Philippines. It also discusses what the upland farmers have to do in return for these rewards. The goal of such a review is to evaluate what elements are present in these communities that will support an environmental reward system and in the process, assess the potential of the case study sites for inclusion in RUPES."

Reinventing Conservation: A Practitioner's View

This chapter claims that we are living in a time of opportunity, as conservation stewardship evolves from a historical emphasis on objectives dealing with efficiency, development of material resources, and preservation of selected wildlands, to an emphasis on objectives more closely tied to public amenity, quality of life, social equity, and civil society. There is also a concurrent devolution of centralized decision making, led by government, to a more pluralistic, community-based process, driven by private or multi-sector initiatives.

Making Conservation Profitable

A great review of the main points of their book "The New Economy of Nature." This article covers some of the emerging markets in ecosystem services and the people involved.

When Nature Goes Public: The Making and Unmaking of Bioprospecting in Mexico

"Cori Hayden tracks bioprospecting's contentious new promise–and the contradictory activities generated in its name. Focusing on a contract involving Mexico's National Autonomous University, Hayden examines the practices through which researchers, plant vendors, rural collectors, indigenous cooperatives, and other actors put prospecting to work. By paying unique attention to scientific research, she provides a key to understanding which people and plants are included in the promise of 'selling biodiversity to save it'–and which are not. And she considers the consequences of linking scientific research and rural 'enfranchisement' to the logics of intellectual property."

Nature 'pays biggest dividends'

Researchers describe how the cash return from conserving wild places is far higher than the gains made from developing them.

Instruments for Climate Policy

The Kyoto Protocol introduced international flexible mechanisms into climate policy and, since then, the design and most effective use of flexible instruments have become key areas for climate policy research. The book Instruments for Climate Policy focuses on the economic and political aspects related to the recent proposals and the debate on limits in flexibility, and discusses EU and US perspectives on climate policy instruments and strategies.

Selling Forest Environmental Services: Market-based Mechanisms for Conservation and Development

Two environmental economists with the International Institute for Environment and Development and Pagiola (an environmental economist with the World Bank) are the editors and among the authors of this collection of 15 essays in this book. The papers present case studies of the application of market-based mechanisms for watershed management, biodiversity, forest carbon, and other resources, in countries that include the US, Canada, Australia, India, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Chile, Panama, and Brazil. The book demonstrates how payment systems can be established in practice, their effectiveness and their implications for the poor.

The Potential of U.S. Forest Soils to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect

The editors (three of whom are with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Provides) of this book provide researchers and policy makers with an understanding of soil processes and their relation to carbon dynamics, as well as strategies to monitor and techniques to measure forest soil carbon. The central topics addressed include the extent, general dynamics, and carbon dynamics of U.S. forest soils; soil processes and carbon dynamics; management impacts on U.S. forest soils; specific forest ecosystems; and synthesis and policy implications. Includes chapters on economics, policy issues, and future research priorities.

How New York City Used an Ecosystem Services Strategy Carried out Through an Urban-Rural Partnership to Preserve the Pristine Quality of Its Drinking Water and Save Billions of Dollars

The New York City watershed protection program may be the most well known example of economics driving a decision to invest in water based ecosystem services. In this narrative the Albert Appleton, Commissioner of the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and Director of the New York City Water and Sewer system, during the creation of the program steps through the social and political process of developing this program. He gives insights in to the difficulty of breaking with status quo policy approaches and the benefits for following instinct allowing for innovation and cooperation that resulted in saving New York City billions of dollars and protecting their environment.

Water Issues in the Asian-Pacific Region

This conceptual presentation by the Lead Water Resource Specialist at the Asian Development Bank outlines the water related social problems in Asia. The presentation outlines the policy behind the Asian Development Bank's Water for All program. It also makes reference to significant studies and initiatives related to watershed management in Asia.

Carbon Finance for Forestry and Agriculture

From the Katoomba 2002 meeting in Tokyo, this World Bank presentation provides an overview of the Prototype Carbon Fund and the BioCarbon Fund. The presentation outlines lessons that the World Bank has learned from working with carbon forestry projects as well as potential deal flow.

Land Conservation Financing

Written by two of the nation’s leading experts on land conservation, Land Conservation Financing provides a comprehensive overview of successful land conservation programs — how they were created, how they are funded, and what they’ve accomplished — along with detailed case studies from across the United States. The authors present important new information on state-of-the-art conservation financing, showcasing programs in states that have become the nation’s leaders in open-space protection: California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and New Jersey. They look at key local land protection efforts by examining model programs in DeKalb County, Georgia; Douglas County, Colorado; Jacksonville, Florida; Lake County, Illinois; Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; Marin County, California; the St. Louis metro area in Missouri and Illinois, and on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The authors then examine how hundreds of communities have created hundreds of millions of dollars in funding by developing successful campaigns to win land conservation ballot measures. They offer case studies and pull together lessons learned as they lay out how to run a successful campaign

Leasing Public Land : Policy Debates and International Experiences

Leasing public land has been advocated as a viable land tenure option for former socialist countries and other transitional economies. However, the debate about land tenure has been influenced more by ideology and preconceptions than by lessons drawn from careful study of existing leasehold systems. This new publication offers a thorough examination of public leasehold systems around the world and presents insightful recommendations for the future role of such systems. Leasehold is a flexible form of land tenure that can be designed to provide an ongoing stream of revenue to finance public infrastructure. What is crucial to the success of leasehold systems is the design and development of appropriate institutions and organizations to, among other things, clearly define property rights and values and provide for effective administration.

Costa Rica: National Conservation Strategy

This case study discusses how Costa Rica was able to reverse the trend of environmental devastation triggered by industrialization and urbanization that accompanyed its economic and social development in the second half of the 20th century. Although policy and financial planning processes were not undertaken as such, certain elements of these are highlighted as lessons learned. This exercise may help other countries recognize and grasp similar political, technical and financial opportunities as they occur.

Spatial prioritisation of environmental service payments for biodiversity protection

This study demonstrates the use of TARGET (software) trade-offs analysis for prioritizing environmental service payments (PSA or ‘Pagos por Servicios Ambientales' in Spanish) to private land-owners in the Osa Conservation Area (ACOSA), Costa Rica. The paper answers a number of research questions of direct management relevance in ACOSA and general relevance to biodiversity conservation planning in the region. The analyses for the ACOSA area conclude that the 1999-2001 selection of areas to receive environmental service payments for forest protection, forest management, and reforestation was not cost-efficient, in the sense of maximizing biodiversity protection on private land outside existing national parks, while also minimizing the opportunity costs to agriculture and commercial forestry. The study goes on to show how TARGET methodology may be used to rank PSA candidate areas by their cost-efficiency in representing complementary biodiversity at lowest cost at regional level (ACOSA).

Rewarding the Upland Poor for Environmental Services: A Review of Initiatives from Developed Countries

Developed countries have already established a number of mechanisms to implement environmental transfers either within their own country, or towards other countries, including developing nations. This review looks at a number such of mechanisms with a common matrix of analysis and tries to draw lessons for the design of RUPES mechanisms in Asia. All these mechanisms have been designed to provide reward to farmers for environmental services, and this report focuses on the ones which were clearly targeting upland farmers.

Natural Values: Exploring Options for Enhancing Ecosystem Services in the Goulburn Broken Catchment

This report summarises results of the first ecosystem services project undertaken in Australia. The project has sought to introduce a new way of thinking about the relationship between people and the environment they depend on. The project's quantification of ecosystem services at selected scales (case studies) contributes directly to catchment planning. Above this, the awareness of transfer of services across scales can contribute to investment in natural capital that takes explicit account of otherwise unrecognised scale effects.

Second Nature: Improving transportation without putting nature second

Because transportation infrastructure necessarily precedes development, current transportation planning will shape future urban growth. This report argues that mobility does not have to come at the expense of biodiversity. "Second Nature: Improving Transportation Without Putting Nature Second" profiles innovative programs that seek to improve transportation infrastructure while protecting biodiversity. Conservation banking is covered as one of these innovations.

The International Regime for Bioprospecting: Existing Policies and Emerging Issues for Antarctica

The aim of this paper, by the United Nations University and the Institute of Advanced Studies, is to assist parties in preparations for biological prospecting in Antarctica. An increasing amount of the scientific research on the flora and fauna of the Antarctic is underway with a view to identifying commercially useful genetic and biochemical resources. The paper reviews bioprospecting activities in Antarctica to ascertain the nature and scope of existing Antarctic bioprospecting activities, as well as recommending further analysis into biological prospecting in Antarctica for the parties currently involved.

Integrating Biodiversity into Oil and Gas Development

This report provides guidance for how to achieve the integration of biodiversity considerations into upstream oil and gas development. It sets out recommendations and takes the stance that it is in the interests of the energy industry and society to continually work toward achieving full integration.

Integrating Biodiversity into Oil and Gas Development

This report provides guidance for how to achieve the integration of biodiversity considerations into upstream oil and gas development. It sets out recommendations and takes the stance that it is in the interests of the energy industry and society to continually work toward achieving full integration.

The Role of Tradable Permits in Water Pollution Control

This analysis of pollutant trading opportunities and review of existing markets was undertaken to encourage discussion by water managers in Chile. The paper gives a brief overview of each type of economic incentive related to water including taxes, water pricing, service charges, subsidies, liabilities for damages and tradable rights and permits. The paper concludes with a recognition of the need for strong legal frameworks that are linked to the practical realities of the country attempting to create a trading system to make the trading system a potential success.