Water Quality Trading Frequently Asked Questions for Clean Water Services Permit

This is one of several documents regarding the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality's watershed-based waste discharge for Clean Water Services. The set of documents, including the NPDES permit itself, show the types of documents and issues that must be addressed when establishing tradable pollutant credits. The focus of this document is on temperature and oxygen demand parameters.

A New Agenda for Forest Conservation and Poverty Reduction: Making Markets Work for Low-Income Producers

The dominant forestry models are increasingly inappropriate… A fundamental re-assessment of the role of forests in rural development, and the role of local people in forest conservation, is urgently needed. The authors of this title lay out a set of strategies to promote forest market development in ways that positively contribute to local livelihoods and community development in low- and middle-income countries.

Report of the Conservation Innovations Task Force

This report documents a general discussion among the Conservation Innovations Task Force (CITF) members revealing "the remarkable variability among state and local conservation programs and needs nationwide. This brainstorming session on emerging issues of importance to the National Conservation Partnership (NCP) led to the identification of seven substantive areas that need to be addressed in future conservation programs: partnerships, national policy and programs, education, energy, trading and market-driven approaches, urban conservation, and marketing."

Compensation for Environmental Services and Rural Communities

This report presents the findings of the "Payment for Environmental Services in the Americas" project (1999-2003), coordinated by PRISMA and supported by the Ford Foundation, as well as PRISMA's framework for the compensation of environmental services from the perspective of peasant and indige-nous communities… The research underpinning this publication was motivated by an overriding concern for equity and a special focus on those 'closest' to the land. The underlying interest was to explore if the PES concept could contribute to overcoming the inequities in the Poor's access to, control over and benefits from their natural resources, while guaranteeing the provision of environmental services.

The social impacts of payments for environmental services in Costa Rica. A quantitative field survey and analysis of the Virilla watershed

In 1996 Costa Rica implemented an innovative programme of Payments for Environmental Services (PES). Through this programme, forest and plantation owners are financially and legally acknowledged for the environmental services their forests provide to the community, both nationally and globally. By means of a case study of the Virilla watershed in Costa Rica, and using as a basis for analysis the Sustainable Livelihoods framework, this report examines the impacts the PES programme has on financial, human, social, physical and environmental capital.

What are we learning from experiences with markets for environmental services in Costa Rica? A review and critique of the literature

The use of markets and payments for environmental services is a topic gaining interest among policy-makers and practitioners worldwide. In the developing world, Costa Rica has led efforts to experiment with the application of these mechanisms. This paper examines the literature regarding the Costa Rica experience to see what we are learning – how technical, scientific and economic information on environmental services has fed into these initiatives, and to what extent these experiences are being monitored and evaluated. The principal objective of the literature review is to identify and review material that addresses inter alia the local origins and development of the concept of payments and markets for environmental services, the types of existing initiatives and who is participating in them, the knowledge base underpinning market development, the monitoring and evaluation of the initiatives to date and to what extent the literature assesses these initiatives in terms of economic efficiency, environmental effectiveness, and social equity and/or poverty reduction.

Developing pro-poor markets for environmental services in the Philippines

This study reviews the various initiatives in the Philippines to develop markets for different types of environmental service, and also discusses the institutional support mechanisms that have emerged. It identifies a number of market initiatives already in operation, mostly in the form of entrance fees to national parks, but shows that for other types of environmental service, much preparatory work for market development has been done, including valuation studies and proposals for payment mechanisms. Government involvement has been key to market development in the Philippines but there have also been some community based initiatives. The study tests a framework for evaluating and monitoring markets for environmental services in two cases: a protected area and a Department of Energy reforestation and environmental management fund. The conclusion drawn is that environmental investments are unlikely to be made unless the basic social needs of communities are met.

Environmental Service 'Payments': Experiences, Constraints and Potential in The Philippines

This case study "reviews the form of incentives or rewards that have been provided to upland communities in a number of sites under different management leadership in the Philippines. It also discusses what the upland farmers have to do in return for these rewards. The goal of such a review is to evaluate what elements are present in these communities that will support an environmental reward system and in the process, assess the potential of the case study sites for inclusion in RUPES."

Reinventing Conservation: A Practitioner's View

This chapter claims that we are living in a time of opportunity, as conservation stewardship evolves from a historical emphasis on objectives dealing with efficiency, development of material resources, and preservation of selected wildlands, to an emphasis on objectives more closely tied to public amenity, quality of life, social equity, and civil society. There is also a concurrent devolution of centralized decision making, led by government, to a more pluralistic, community-based process, driven by private or multi-sector initiatives.

Making Conservation Profitable

A great review of the main points of their book "The New Economy of Nature." This article covers some of the emerging markets in ecosystem services and the people involved.

When Nature Goes Public: The Making and Unmaking of Bioprospecting in Mexico

"Cori Hayden tracks bioprospecting's contentious new promise–and the contradictory activities generated in its name. Focusing on a contract involving Mexico's National Autonomous University, Hayden examines the practices through which researchers, plant vendors, rural collectors, indigenous cooperatives, and other actors put prospecting to work. By paying unique attention to scientific research, she provides a key to understanding which people and plants are included in the promise of 'selling biodiversity to save it'–and which are not. And she considers the consequences of linking scientific research and rural 'enfranchisement' to the logics of intellectual property."

Instruments for Climate Policy

The Kyoto Protocol introduced international flexible mechanisms into climate policy and, since then, the design and most effective use of flexible instruments have become key areas for climate policy research. The book Instruments for Climate Policy focuses on the economic and political aspects related to the recent proposals and the debate on limits in flexibility, and discusses EU and US perspectives on climate policy instruments and strategies.

Selling Forest Environmental Services: Market-based Mechanisms for Conservation and Development

Two environmental economists with the International Institute for Environment and Development and Pagiola (an environmental economist with the World Bank) are the editors and among the authors of this collection of 15 essays in this book. The papers present case studies of the application of market-based mechanisms for watershed management, biodiversity, forest carbon, and other resources, in countries that include the US, Canada, Australia, India, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Chile, Panama, and Brazil. The book demonstrates how payment systems can be established in practice, their effectiveness and their implications for the poor.

Water Issues in the Asian-Pacific Region

This conceptual presentation by the Lead Water Resource Specialist at the Asian Development Bank outlines the water related social problems in Asia. The presentation outlines the policy behind the Asian Development Bank's Water for All program. It also makes reference to significant studies and initiatives related to watershed management in Asia.

Carbon Finance for Forestry and Agriculture

From the Katoomba 2002 meeting in Tokyo, this World Bank presentation provides an overview of the Prototype Carbon Fund and the BioCarbon Fund. The presentation outlines lessons that the World Bank has learned from working with carbon forestry projects as well as potential deal flow.

Costa Rica: National Conservation Strategy

This case study discusses how Costa Rica was able to reverse the trend of environmental devastation triggered by industrialization and urbanization that accompanyed its economic and social development in the second half of the 20th century. Although policy and financial planning processes were not undertaken as such, certain elements of these are highlighted as lessons learned. This exercise may help other countries recognize and grasp similar political, technical and financial opportunities as they occur.

Rewarding the Upland Poor for Environmental Services: A Review of Initiatives from Developed Countries

Developed countries have already established a number of mechanisms to implement environmental transfers either within their own country, or towards other countries, including developing nations. This review looks at a number such of mechanisms with a common matrix of analysis and tries to draw lessons for the design of RUPES mechanisms in Asia. All these mechanisms have been designed to provide reward to farmers for environmental services, and this report focuses on the ones which were clearly targeting upland farmers.

Natural Values: Exploring Options for Enhancing Ecosystem Services in the Goulburn Broken Catchment

This report summarises results of the first ecosystem services project undertaken in Australia. The project has sought to introduce a new way of thinking about the relationship between people and the environment they depend on. The project's quantification of ecosystem services at selected scales (case studies) contributes directly to catchment planning. Above this, the awareness of transfer of services across scales can contribute to investment in natural capital that takes explicit account of otherwise unrecognised scale effects.

Second Nature: Improving transportation without putting nature second

Because transportation infrastructure necessarily precedes development, current transportation planning will shape future urban growth. This report argues that mobility does not have to come at the expense of biodiversity. "Second Nature: Improving Transportation Without Putting Nature Second" profiles innovative programs that seek to improve transportation infrastructure while protecting biodiversity. Conservation banking is covered as one of these innovations.

The International Regime for Bioprospecting: Existing Policies and Emerging Issues for Antarctica

The aim of this paper, by the United Nations University and the Institute of Advanced Studies, is to assist parties in preparations for biological prospecting in Antarctica. An increasing amount of the scientific research on the flora and fauna of the Antarctic is underway with a view to identifying commercially useful genetic and biochemical resources. The paper reviews bioprospecting activities in Antarctica to ascertain the nature and scope of existing Antarctic bioprospecting activities, as well as recommending further analysis into biological prospecting in Antarctica for the parties currently involved.

Integrating Biodiversity into Oil and Gas Development

This report provides guidance for how to achieve the integration of biodiversity considerations into upstream oil and gas development. It sets out recommendations and takes the stance that it is in the interests of the energy industry and society to continually work toward achieving full integration.

Integrating Biodiversity into Oil and Gas Development

This report provides guidance for how to achieve the integration of biodiversity considerations into upstream oil and gas development. It sets out recommendations and takes the stance that it is in the interests of the energy industry and society to continually work toward achieving full integration.

The Role of Tradable Permits in Water Pollution Control

This analysis of pollutant trading opportunities and review of existing markets was undertaken to encourage discussion by water managers in Chile. The paper gives a brief overview of each type of economic incentive related to water including taxes, water pricing, service charges, subsidies, liabilities for damages and tradable rights and permits. The paper concludes with a recognition of the need for strong legal frameworks that are linked to the practical realities of the country attempting to create a trading system to make the trading system a potential success.