Forest Landscape Restoration Implementation Workshop: A Summary Report

This report summarizes the Forest Landscape Restoration Implementation Workshop (the Petrí³polis Workshop) convened in Petrí³polis, Brazil from 4-8 April 2005. The Workshop was a country- and organization-led initiative in support of the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF) hosted by Brazil and organized by the Global Partnership on Forest Landscape Restoration. The latter was created in March 2003 to identify and reinforce a network of diverse forest landscape restoration (FLR) examples that deliver benefits to local communities, fulfill international commitments on forests, and help manage forests for the ecological health of landscapes.

Indians, Markets, and Rainforests

This book addresses two important and related questions: does participation in a market economy help or hurt indigenous peoples and how does it affect the conservation of tropical rainforest flora and fauna? Oddly, there have been few quantitative studies that have addressed these issues. Ricardo Godoy ´s research takes an important step toward rectifying this oversight by investigating five different lowland Amerindian societies of tropical Latin America -all of which are experiencing deep changes as they modernize. Godoy examines the effect of markets on a broad range of areas including health, conservation of flora and fauna, leisure, folk knowledge, reciprocity, and private time preference. He concludes that, contrary to considerable anthropological theory, the effect of markets on the quality of life and the rainforest are often unclear or benign. Godoy uses multivariate techniques to examine the changes modernization has had on many indicators of the quality of life and the environment and concludes that the seeds of socioeconomic differentiation may already lie dormant in simple economies.

Background Papers on Wetland Values and Functions

Ramsar's Background Papers on Wetland Values and Functions provides information on several wetland functions, including economic valuations of specific wetlands throughout the world based on these functions. This site provides links to background papers on the following wetland functions: flood control, groundwater replenishment, shoreline stabilization and storm protection, sediment and nutrient retention and export, climate change mitigation, water purification, reservoirs of biodiversity, wetland products, recreation and tourism, and cultural value.

Participatory Management Clearinghouse

The Participatory Management Clearinghouse is a joint initiative of the Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar), The World Conservation Untion (IUCN), and The Swedish International Development Cooperation (SIDA). The clearinghouse is classified thematically by ecosystems, regions, or themes. Posted documents, specific projects and case studies cover issues such as biodiversity and traditional knowledge, gender, water, equitable sharing, protected areas, and indigenous peoples. The new trend for the clearinghouse is a specific focus on participatory management and wetlands issues.

Aquatic and Wetland Plant Forum

The Aquatic and Wetland Plant Forum aims to facilitate exchange of ideas and information relating to the ecology, conservation, identification, taxonomy, and survey methods for wetland plants. The Forum website is built around a series of email lists covering various aquatic and wetland plant topics. Users can freely subscribe to these email lists or visit listserv archives from this web page.

ELI-Wetlands Listserv

The ELI-Wetlands Listserv is a free electronic forum on wetlands, floodplains, and coastal resources and provides an outlet for debate and dissemination of information on wetlands law, policy, science, and management. To subscribe to this list, send an email to

Bioprospecting: lessons from benefit-sharing experiences

This paper looks at how benefits from bioprospecting have been shared among the stakeholders in the arrangements. It briefly describes lessons learned from three case studies on different continents and among various stakeholders and commercial interests.

Global Peatland Database

The Global Peatland Database is continually updated with baseline information on the distribution, size, quality, ecological characteristics, carbon storage and biological diversity of peatlands. This database is currently searchable by country and disjunct areas and contested areas. Peatlands represent 50 to 70 percent of all wetlands and are globally important as carbon stores and sinks, storing more carbon than all the worlds forests.

Wetlands Helpline

The US Environmental Protection Agency Wetlands Helpline acts as the first point of contact for the Agency's Wetlands Division and is designed to allow public access to water-related information. The Helpline is staffed by librarians providing in-depth, EPA-approved information, documents and referrals addressing Federal and State regulatory programs, wetlands science, and educational outreach. The Helpline maintains a catalog of documents that are mailed to requestors free of charge. The phone numbers for the Helpline are 1-800-832-7828 (US) and 202-566-1730 (International).

National Water Resource Plans

Integrated water resources planning implemented on a national basis can be the foundation for protection of water ecosystem services. This document gives a brief introduction and references to other documents within the ToolBox for Integrated Water Resources Management for developing a national program. The related links reference policy and legislative development, institution building and regulatory instruments.

Global Water Partnership ToolBox

The ToolBox for integrated water resource management is a source of policy development, organization building and financial mechanisms to assist decision makers and practitioners in creating policies for sustainable water resources management. The ToolBox is derived from experience and knowledge from implementing integrated water resources management, worldwide. The ToolBox also includes dozens of case studies, organizational listings, reference materials and useful web site links including an overview of water markets and incentive programs with related case studies and references.

The Business of Climate Change: Corporate Responses to Kyoto

The Business of Climate Change presents a state-of-the-art analysis of corporate responses to the climate change issue. The book describes and assesses a number of recent business approaches that will help to identify effective strategies and promote the dissemination of proactive corporate practices on climate change worldwide. By identifying the factors that cause companies to pursue low-carbon strategies and support the Kyoto process, the book will also be helpful to governments in formulating policy.

Business and industry have a crucial role to play in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. They are major emitters of greenhouse gases, and pressure is mounting for them to engage in a range of mitigation strategies, from emission inventorying and trading schemes to investments in low-carbon technologies. Behind the scenes a number of companies have started to develop strategies to curtail greenhouse gas emissions.

These strategies can be very diverse in nature. At a political level, companies try to influence policy implementation and, more specifically, to test ideas in anticipation of possible regulation on the climate change issue. At a more practical level, there are a burgeoning number of initiatives to conserve energy use in production, transportation and buildings, to develop renewable sources of energy, to measure carbon emissions and sequestration at a detailed level, and to develop various markets for trading carbon credits among companies and countries. Some technologies, such as hybrid cars and compact fluorescent lighting, are now market realities.

Common to all of these initiatives is that they operate in an environment of high complexity and uncertainty. The political implementation of the Kyoto Protocol remains uncertain and many details remain unspecified. Economic instruments such as emission trading are favoured, but their mechanisms are still hotly debated and the future price of credits is unknown. New markets for low-emission products and technologies are beginning to appear, but there are currently few regulatory drivers to assist their development. The impact of potential regulation on business will vary tremendously between companies and sectors. The fossil fuel and energy sectors fear the economics of action, while sectors such as insurance and agriculture fear the economics of inaction. Combined with the remaining uncertainties about what form climate change may take, corporate responses to reduce risks have to differentiate between sectors and have to be flexible. For individual companies, these big uncertainties demand new thinking and contingency planning.

The Business of Climate Change is split into four sections: ‘Introduction and overview’ presents a broad perspective on business and climate policies. ‘Policy instruments’ outlines early experiences with different types of policy instruments to curb greenhouse gas emissions, ranging from emission trading to voluntary agreements. ‘Sector analysis’ assesses developments within sectors of industry that are likely to play an important role in future climate policies: oil, cement, chemical, automotive and insurance. Finally, ‘Case studies’ discusses bottom-up initiatives to combat climate change in five different organisations.
This book will be essential reading for policy-makers searching for instruments that have proven business support; academics and researchers analysing the complexity of how business is responding to the challenge of climate change; and businesses wishing to learn about best practice in the sectors most likely to be seriously affected.

Payments for Environmental services in German Financial Cooperation

This paper from Germany's KfW Bankengruppe looks at how to design and fund financial mechanisms that encourage landowners to manage their resources in a manner that benefits society. The paper reflects on the experiences of KfW in supporting such mechanisms in Latin America, a continent that has been particularly active in developing innovative approaches to conservation. It identifies three major challenges – the institutional requirements of setting up such mechanisms, the sustainability of impacts on the farm level, and the potential to expand environmental impacts by improving cost effectiveness.

Diminishing Biodiverse Returns

The article presents a skeptial view of the premise of the Third Meeting of the Ad Hoc Open-Ended Working Group on Asset and Benefit Sharing of the Convention on Biodiversity.

How do CDM projects contribute to sustainable development?

This research paper aims to provide information that will help to ensure that the benefits of carbon forestry investments in the Kyoto Protocol's CDM and similar projects are more equitably shared between stakeholders at local, national, regional and international levels, and that the trade-offs between social, economic and environmental criteria can be rigorously assessed. The authors adopt a case study approach and utilize a multi-disciplinary, primarily qualitative methodology to evaluate these issues. Preliminary research in Bolivia and Brazil was used to identify a set of key questions and criteria which were then applied to projects in Mexico and Belize. The paper sets out to develop a framework for evaluating CDM forestry options, with special reference to local development perspectives and North-South issues.

Sea Turtle Research and Conservation, El Salvador

Of the seven species of sea turtle in our oceans, six are classified as endangered on the IUCN’s Red List of Threatened Species. Until now, there has been very little information available as to how human activity, such as hunting for eggs and meat and tourist development of the beaches where they nest, are impacting populations. The Salvadoran non-profit organization, the Zoological Foundation of El Salvador (FUNZEL), has devised an innovative way of both monitoring and rescuing the sea turtles and their nests.

Captura de Carbono el la Sierra Norte de Mexico

The case study looks at the work of two community forestry organizations evaluating the potential and developing projects related to marketing the potential carbon captured by their forests.

Privatization: Nature for Sale

This report, published by Friends of the Earth, discusses the impacts of privatisation of water supply and biodiversity on the poor throughout the world, especially women. This publication documents 34 cases describing what happens when the privatisation agenda is pushed through and the public sector leaves the exploitation and management of natural resources to the private sector.

Selecting an Environmental Consultant

This is a perfect example of how PES can learn from other related work. Though this focuses on cleaning up groundwater, the types of questions, especially those on page 2, are useful for those getting involved in PES.

Investigación y Conservación de Tortugas Marinas, El Salvador

De las siete especias de tortugas marinas en nuestros mares, seis son clasificados en peligro de extincií³n por la Lista Roja de Especias Amanezadas del UICN. Hasta ahora no habí­an sido mucho informacií³n dispuesto sobre como las actividades humanos, como la caza para huevos o carne y el desarrollo de turismo en las playas donde colocan sus nidos, impactan las tortugas. La Fundacií³n Zoolí³gico de El Salvador, una organizacií³n sin fines de lucra, han creado un mecanismo inovadoro para monitorear y rescatar las tortugas y sus nidos.

PepsiCo Water Report

 The PepsiCo Water Report details progress on a set of goals organized around a straightforward premise: respecting the human right to water through world-class efficiency in operations, preserving water resources and enabling access to safe water.  This report includes information about PepsiCo’s water policies and management practicies, including support for water projects in developing countries, efforts to improve water use effiency, implementation of water accounting systems.

Coca-Cola Water Stewardship 2009-2010

The Coca Cola Water Stewardship report for 2009-2010 includes information on Coca Cola’s water use and efficiency, involvement in community water projects, and work to protect water source sustainability. Water stewardship efforts focus on three areas: improving water efficiency, recycling the water used in operations (wastewater treatment), and replenishment through community water access and watershed restoration and protection.

Charting our Water Future: Economic Frameworks to Inform Decision-Making

Growing competition for scarce water resources is a growing business risk, a major economic threat, and a challenge for the sustainability of communities and the ecosystems upon which they rely. This report provides greater clarity on the scale of the water challenge and how it can be met in an affordable and sustainable manner. The report offers case studies from four countries with drastically different water issues, which will collectively account for 40 percent of the world’s population, 30 percent of global GDP and 42 percent of projected water demand in 2030: China, India, South Africa and Brazil. The report’s methodology identifies supply- and demand-side measures that could constitute a more cost effective approach to closing the water gap and achieve savings in each country.

Scolel Te

Scolel Té (which means "growing trees" in Tzeltal and Tojolobal) is a forestry and land-use project in Chiapas, Mexico, that is assisting farmers primarily in nine Mayan indigenous communities with developing small agroforestry and forestry enterprises. The objective of the project is to promote carbon sequestration and sustainable farming practices by providing local farmers with technical assistance and financial incentives to shift from agriculture to agroforestry, convert pastures to plantations, restore degraded forest, and better manage natural forest. The carbon benefits generated by these enterprises are expected to range from a minimum of 55,000 tonnes of CO2 (15,000 t C) up to 1.21 million t CO2 (330,000 t C), depending on funding. In addition, this project is expected to contribute to the social and economic welfare of these communities as well as the preservation of the region's rich biodiversity.

Rio Bravo Climate Action Project

The Nature Conservancy's Rio Bravo climate action project involves the conservation and sustainable management of more than 153,000 acres of tropical forest in northwest Belize. It is estimated that the project will reduce, avoid or mitigate up to 8.8 million tons of carbon dioxide over 40 years by preventing deforestation and ensuring sustainable forest management. The project is one of the first fully funded forest-sector projects implemented under the U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation. Programme for Belize, TNC's partner organization in Belize, manages the project and private reserve. A number of energy producers provided $5.6 million in funding for the first 10 years of the 40-year project. Investors include Cinergy, Detroit Edison, Nexen, PacifiCorp, Suncor, Utilitree Carbon Company and Wisconsin Electric Power Company.

Noel Kempff Mercado Climate Action Project

One of the largest ecosystem carbon offset projects developed to date is in Bolivia, where the borders of the Noel Kempff Mercado National Park were extended after logging rights on neighboring forest concessions were retired. This $10 million project managed by The Nature Conservancy, which protects 600,000 ha (2300 sq. miles) of tropical rainforest, will sequester an estimated 6-8 million tons of carbon emissions over 30 years. Industry investors include AEP, PacifiCorp, and British Petroleum. The land is owned by the Government of Bolivia and managed by Bolivian NGO, Fundacin Amigos de la Naturaleza. Half the carbon offsets will be credited to the Government of Bolivia and the other half to investors.