Annex 1 Parties’ current and potential CER demand

Examines demand for Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs) under the Kyoto Protocol. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of Annex I countries’ current and projected distance from their respective Kyoto target, and documents their current policy regarding how they intend to make use of CERs to meet their commitments. Reviews and analyses key Annex I countries’ existing agreements or MoUs on CDM projects with non-Annex I countries, as well as outlining project and price expectations, and other preferences relating to choice of host countries. Finally, the paper provides an overview of established and emerging initiatives (tenders etc.) taken by Annex I government with the aim of acquiring CERs.

Water Quality Trading Frequently Asked Questions for Clean Water Services Permit

This is one of several documents regarding the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality's watershed-based waste discharge for Clean Water Services. The set of documents, including the NPDES permit itself, show the types of documents and issues that must be addressed when establishing tradable pollutant credits. The focus of this document is on temperature and oxygen demand parameters.

WWF Living Planet report 2004

This report assesses the current state of the world's ecosystems, as well as the human pressures on natural resource consumption, known as the ecological footprint. The report highlights the fact that humans are currently consuming 20% more natural resources than the earth can produce. The report also finds that from 1970 to 2000, populations of terrestrial and marine species dropped by 30%, while freshwater populations plummeted by a dramatic 50%. WWF claims that this is a direct consequence of increasing human demand for food, fibre, energy and water.

A New Agenda for Forest Conservation and Poverty Reduction: Making Markets Work for Low-Income Producers

The dominant forestry models are increasingly inappropriate… A fundamental re-assessment of the role of forests in rural development, and the role of local people in forest conservation, is urgently needed. The authors of this title lay out a set of strategies to promote forest market development in ways that positively contribute to local livelihoods and community development in low- and middle-income countries.

Report of the Conservation Innovations Task Force

This report documents a general discussion among the Conservation Innovations Task Force (CITF) members revealing "the remarkable variability among state and local conservation programs and needs nationwide. This brainstorming session on emerging issues of importance to the National Conservation Partnership (NCP) led to the identification of seven substantive areas that need to be addressed in future conservation programs: partnerships, national policy and programs, education, energy, trading and market-driven approaches, urban conservation, and marketing."

The social impacts of payments for environmental services in Costa Rica. A quantitative field survey and analysis of the Virilla watershed

In 1996 Costa Rica implemented an innovative programme of Payments for Environmental Services (PES). Through this programme, forest and plantation owners are financially and legally acknowledged for the environmental services their forests provide to the community, both nationally and globally. By means of a case study of the Virilla watershed in Costa Rica, and using as a basis for analysis the Sustainable Livelihoods framework, this report examines the impacts the PES programme has on financial, human, social, physical and environmental capital.

What are we learning from experiences with markets for environmental services in Costa Rica? A review and critique of the literature

The use of markets and payments for environmental services is a topic gaining interest among policy-makers and practitioners worldwide. In the developing world, Costa Rica has led efforts to experiment with the application of these mechanisms. This paper examines the literature regarding the Costa Rica experience to see what we are learning – how technical, scientific and economic information on environmental services has fed into these initiatives, and to what extent these experiences are being monitored and evaluated. The principal objective of the literature review is to identify and review material that addresses inter alia the local origins and development of the concept of payments and markets for environmental services, the types of existing initiatives and who is participating in them, the knowledge base underpinning market development, the monitoring and evaluation of the initiatives to date and to what extent the literature assesses these initiatives in terms of economic efficiency, environmental effectiveness, and social equity and/or poverty reduction.

Reinventing Conservation: A Practitioner's View

This chapter claims that we are living in a time of opportunity, as conservation stewardship evolves from a historical emphasis on objectives dealing with efficiency, development of material resources, and preservation of selected wildlands, to an emphasis on objectives more closely tied to public amenity, quality of life, social equity, and civil society. There is also a concurrent devolution of centralized decision making, led by government, to a more pluralistic, community-based process, driven by private or multi-sector initiatives.

Making Conservation Profitable

A great review of the main points of their book "The New Economy of Nature." This article covers some of the emerging markets in ecosystem services and the people involved.

When Nature Goes Public: The Making and Unmaking of Bioprospecting in Mexico

"Cori Hayden tracks bioprospecting's contentious new promise–and the contradictory activities generated in its name. Focusing on a contract involving Mexico's National Autonomous University, Hayden examines the practices through which researchers, plant vendors, rural collectors, indigenous cooperatives, and other actors put prospecting to work. By paying unique attention to scientific research, she provides a key to understanding which people and plants are included in the promise of 'selling biodiversity to save it'–and which are not. And she considers the consequences of linking scientific research and rural 'enfranchisement' to the logics of intellectual property."

Nature 'pays biggest dividends'

Researchers describe how the cash return from conserving wild places is far higher than the gains made from developing them.

Instruments for Climate Policy

The Kyoto Protocol introduced international flexible mechanisms into climate policy and, since then, the design and most effective use of flexible instruments have become key areas for climate policy research. The book Instruments for Climate Policy focuses on the economic and political aspects related to the recent proposals and the debate on limits in flexibility, and discusses EU and US perspectives on climate policy instruments and strategies.

Selling Forest Environmental Services: Market-based Mechanisms for Conservation and Development

Two environmental economists with the International Institute for Environment and Development and Pagiola (an environmental economist with the World Bank) are the editors and among the authors of this collection of 15 essays in this book. The papers present case studies of the application of market-based mechanisms for watershed management, biodiversity, forest carbon, and other resources, in countries that include the US, Canada, Australia, India, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Chile, Panama, and Brazil. The book demonstrates how payment systems can be established in practice, their effectiveness and their implications for the poor.

The Potential of U.S. Forest Soils to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect

The editors (three of whom are with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Provides) of this book provide researchers and policy makers with an understanding of soil processes and their relation to carbon dynamics, as well as strategies to monitor and techniques to measure forest soil carbon. The central topics addressed include the extent, general dynamics, and carbon dynamics of U.S. forest soils; soil processes and carbon dynamics; management impacts on U.S. forest soils; specific forest ecosystems; and synthesis and policy implications. Includes chapters on economics, policy issues, and future research priorities.

Land Conservation Financing

Written by two of the nation’s leading experts on land conservation, Land Conservation Financing provides a comprehensive overview of successful land conservation programs — how they were created, how they are funded, and what they’ve accomplished — along with detailed case studies from across the United States. The authors present important new information on state-of-the-art conservation financing, showcasing programs in states that have become the nation’s leaders in open-space protection: California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and New Jersey. They look at key local land protection efforts by examining model programs in DeKalb County, Georgia; Douglas County, Colorado; Jacksonville, Florida; Lake County, Illinois; Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; Marin County, California; the St. Louis metro area in Missouri and Illinois, and on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The authors then examine how hundreds of communities have created hundreds of millions of dollars in funding by developing successful campaigns to win land conservation ballot measures. They offer case studies and pull together lessons learned as they lay out how to run a successful campaign

Leasing Public Land : Policy Debates and International Experiences

Leasing public land has been advocated as a viable land tenure option for former socialist countries and other transitional economies. However, the debate about land tenure has been influenced more by ideology and preconceptions than by lessons drawn from careful study of existing leasehold systems. This new publication offers a thorough examination of public leasehold systems around the world and presents insightful recommendations for the future role of such systems. Leasehold is a flexible form of land tenure that can be designed to provide an ongoing stream of revenue to finance public infrastructure. What is crucial to the success of leasehold systems is the design and development of appropriate institutions and organizations to, among other things, clearly define property rights and values and provide for effective administration.

Costa Rica: National Conservation Strategy

This case study discusses how Costa Rica was able to reverse the trend of environmental devastation triggered by industrialization and urbanization that accompanyed its economic and social development in the second half of the 20th century. Although policy and financial planning processes were not undertaken as such, certain elements of these are highlighted as lessons learned. This exercise may help other countries recognize and grasp similar political, technical and financial opportunities as they occur.

Spatial prioritisation of environmental service payments for biodiversity protection

This study demonstrates the use of TARGET (software) trade-offs analysis for prioritizing environmental service payments (PSA or ‘Pagos por Servicios Ambientales' in Spanish) to private land-owners in the Osa Conservation Area (ACOSA), Costa Rica. The paper answers a number of research questions of direct management relevance in ACOSA and general relevance to biodiversity conservation planning in the region. The analyses for the ACOSA area conclude that the 1999-2001 selection of areas to receive environmental service payments for forest protection, forest management, and reforestation was not cost-efficient, in the sense of maximizing biodiversity protection on private land outside existing national parks, while also minimizing the opportunity costs to agriculture and commercial forestry. The study goes on to show how TARGET methodology may be used to rank PSA candidate areas by their cost-efficiency in representing complementary biodiversity at lowest cost at regional level (ACOSA).

Rewarding the Upland Poor for Environmental Services: A Review of Initiatives from Developed Countries

Developed countries have already established a number of mechanisms to implement environmental transfers either within their own country, or towards other countries, including developing nations. This review looks at a number such of mechanisms with a common matrix of analysis and tries to draw lessons for the design of RUPES mechanisms in Asia. All these mechanisms have been designed to provide reward to farmers for environmental services, and this report focuses on the ones which were clearly targeting upland farmers.

Second Nature: Improving transportation without putting nature second

Because transportation infrastructure necessarily precedes development, current transportation planning will shape future urban growth. This report argues that mobility does not have to come at the expense of biodiversity. "Second Nature: Improving Transportation Without Putting Nature Second" profiles innovative programs that seek to improve transportation infrastructure while protecting biodiversity. Conservation banking is covered as one of these innovations.

Integrating Biodiversity into Oil and Gas Development

This report provides guidance for how to achieve the integration of biodiversity considerations into upstream oil and gas development. It sets out recommendations and takes the stance that it is in the interests of the energy industry and society to continually work toward achieving full integration.

Integrating Biodiversity into Oil and Gas Development

This report provides guidance for how to achieve the integration of biodiversity considerations into upstream oil and gas development. It sets out recommendations and takes the stance that it is in the interests of the energy industry and society to continually work toward achieving full integration.

The Role of Tradable Permits in Water Pollution Control

This analysis of pollutant trading opportunities and review of existing markets was undertaken to encourage discussion by water managers in Chile. The paper gives a brief overview of each type of economic incentive related to water including taxes, water pricing, service charges, subsidies, liabilities for damages and tradable rights and permits. The paper concludes with a recognition of the need for strong legal frameworks that are linked to the practical realities of the country attempting to create a trading system to make the trading system a potential success.