This report assesses the current state of the world's ecosystems, as well as the human pressures on natural resource consumption, known as the ecological footprint. The report highlights the fact that humans are currently consuming 20% more natural resources than the earth can produce. The report also finds that from 1970 to 2000, populations of terrestrial and marine species dropped by 30%, while freshwater populations plummeted by a dramatic 50%. WWF claims that this is a direct consequence of increasing human demand for food, fibre, energy and water.
This case study looks at the role of intellectual property rights in the benefit-sharing arrangements concerning the “Jeevani” drug, which was developed by scientists at the Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute (TBGRI), based on the tribal medicinal knowledge of the Kani tribe in Kerala, South India.
The dominant forestry models are increasingly inappropriate… A fundamental re-assessment of the role of forests in rural development, and the role of local people in forest conservation, is urgently needed. The authors of this title lay out a set of strategies to promote forest market development in ways that positively contribute to local livelihoods and community development in low- and middle-income countries.
This report documents a general discussion among the Conservation Innovations Task Force (CITF) members revealing "the remarkable variability among state and local conservation programs and needs nationwide. This brainstorming session on emerging issues of importance to the National Conservation Partnership (NCP) led to the identification of seven substantive areas that need to be addressed in future conservation programs: partnerships, national policy and programs, education, energy, trading and market-driven approaches, urban conservation, and marketing."
"Cori Hayden tracks bioprospecting's contentious new promise–and the contradictory activities generated in its name. Focusing on a contract involving Mexico's National Autonomous University, Hayden examines the practices through which researchers, plant vendors, rural collectors, indigenous cooperatives, and other actors put prospecting to work. By paying unique attention to scientific research, she provides a key to understanding which people and plants are included in the promise of 'selling biodiversity to save it'–and which are not. And she considers the consequences of linking scientific research and rural 'enfranchisement' to the logics of intellectual property."
The Kyoto Protocol introduced international flexible mechanisms into climate policy and, since then, the design and most effective use of flexible instruments have become key areas for climate policy research. The book Instruments for Climate Policy focuses on the economic and political aspects related to the recent proposals and the debate on limits in flexibility, and discusses EU and US perspectives on climate policy instruments and strategies.
Two environmental economists with the International Institute for Environment and Development and Pagiola (an environmental economist with the World Bank) are the editors and among the authors of this collection of 15 essays in this book. The papers present case studies of the application of market-based mechanisms for watershed management, biodiversity, forest carbon, and other resources, in countries that include the US, Canada, Australia, India, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Chile, Panama, and Brazil. The book demonstrates how payment systems can be established in practice, their effectiveness and their implications for the poor.
The editors (three of whom are with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Provides) of this book provide researchers and policy makers with an understanding of soil processes and their relation to carbon dynamics, as well as strategies to monitor and techniques to measure forest soil carbon. The central topics addressed include the extent, general dynamics, and carbon dynamics of U.S. forest soils; soil processes and carbon dynamics; management impacts on U.S. forest soils; specific forest ecosystems; and synthesis and policy implications. Includes chapters on economics, policy issues, and future research priorities.
The New York City watershed protection program may be the most well known example of economics driving a decision to invest in water based ecosystem services. In this narrative the Albert Appleton, Commissioner of the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and Director of the New York City Water and Sewer system, during the creation of the program steps through the social and political process of developing this program. He gives insights in to the difficulty of breaking with status quo policy approaches and the benefits for following instinct allowing for innovation and cooperation that resulted in saving New York City billions of dollars and protecting their environment.
This conceptual presentation by the Lead Water Resource Specialist at the Asian Development Bank outlines the water related social problems in Asia. The presentation outlines the policy behind the Asian Development Bank's Water for All program. It also makes reference to significant studies and initiatives related to watershed management in Asia.
From the Katoomba 2002 meeting in Tokyo, this World Bank presentation provides an overview of the Prototype Carbon Fund and the BioCarbon Fund. The presentation outlines lessons that the World Bank has learned from working with carbon forestry projects as well as potential deal flow.
Written by two of the nation’s leading experts on land conservation, Land Conservation Financing provides a comprehensive overview of successful land conservation programs — how they were created, how they are funded, and what they’ve accomplished — along with detailed case studies from across the United States. The authors present important new information on state-of-the-art conservation financing, showcasing programs in states that have become the nation’s leaders in open-space protection: California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and New Jersey. They look at key local land protection efforts by examining model programs in DeKalb County, Georgia; Douglas County, Colorado; Jacksonville, Florida; Lake County, Illinois; Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; Marin County, California; the St. Louis metro area in Missouri and Illinois, and on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The authors then examine how hundreds of communities have created hundreds of millions of dollars in funding by developing successful campaigns to win land conservation ballot measures. They offer case studies and pull together lessons learned as they lay out how to run a successful campaign
Leasing public land has been advocated as a viable land tenure option for former socialist countries and other transitional economies. However, the debate about land tenure has been influenced more by ideology and preconceptions than by lessons drawn from careful study of existing leasehold systems. This new publication offers a thorough examination of public leasehold systems around the world and presents insightful recommendations for the future role of such systems. Leasehold is a flexible form of land tenure that can be designed to provide an ongoing stream of revenue to finance public infrastructure. What is crucial to the success of leasehold systems is the design and development of appropriate institutions and organizations to, among other things, clearly define property rights and values and provide for effective administration.
This case study discusses how Costa Rica was able to reverse the trend of environmental devastation triggered by industrialization and urbanization that accompanyed its economic and social development in the second half of the 20th century. Although policy and financial planning processes were not undertaken as such, certain elements of these are highlighted as lessons learned. This exercise may help other countries recognize and grasp similar political, technical and financial opportunities as they occur.
This report summarises results of the first ecosystem services project undertaken in Australia. The project has sought to introduce a new way of thinking about the relationship between people and the environment they depend on. The project's quantification of ecosystem services at selected scales (case studies) contributes directly to catchment planning. Above this, the awareness of transfer of services across scales can contribute to investment in natural capital that takes explicit account of otherwise unrecognised scale effects.
The aim of this paper, by the United Nations University and the Institute of Advanced Studies, is to assist parties in preparations for biological prospecting in Antarctica. An increasing amount of the scientific research on the flora and fauna of the Antarctic is underway with a view to identifying commercially useful genetic and biochemical resources. The paper reviews bioprospecting activities in Antarctica to ascertain the nature and scope of existing Antarctic bioprospecting activities, as well as recommending further analysis into biological prospecting in Antarctica for the parties currently involved.
By using an explicitly economic framework, this 2003 OECD document sorts through many issues that need to be considered in implementing frameworks for access and benefit sharing of genetic resources.
This analysis of pollutant trading opportunities and review of existing markets was undertaken to encourage discussion by water managers in Chile. The paper gives a brief overview of each type of economic incentive related to water including taxes, water pricing, service charges, subsidies, liabilities for damages and tradable rights and permits. The paper concludes with a recognition of the need for strong legal frameworks that are linked to the practical realities of the country attempting to create a trading system to make the trading system a potential success.
The Hunter River Salinity Trading Scheme uses quantitative models to allocate salinity discharges allowed by permit holders depending on water flow and salinity. The program involves online trading of salinity credits between permit holders and has succeded in reducing salinity to acceptable levels when past levels were threatening to downstream irrigators.
Realizing that defensive disclosure is not the only option for traditional knowledge holders, AAAS has created a handbook that attempts to make intellectual property protection options more understandable and readily available for traditional knowledge holders. Its goal is to help local communities understand and identify potential protection mechanisms already present in current intellectual property rights (IPRs) regimes and the public domain for traditional knowledge. In addition to introducing some basic intellectual property concepts, this handbook contains a series of exercises to help the reader to identify knowledge and classify types of knowledge, as well as cultural and interest-related aspects of that knowledge. Through a series of exercises, it is possible for traditional knowledge holders to identify whether or not intellectual property options in the current regime are relevant and/or appropriate for their knowledge.
Virtually all large-scale damage to the global environment is caused by economic activities, and the vast majority of economic planners in both business and government coordinate these activities on the basis of guidelines and prescriptions from neoclassical economic theory. In this hard-hitting book, Robert Nadeau demonstrates that the claim that neoclassical economics is a science comparable to the physical sciences is totally bogus and that our failure to recognize and deal with this fact constitutes the greatest single barrier to the timely resolution of the crisis in the global environment. Nadeau makes a convincing case that the myth that neoclassical economic theory is a science has blinded us to the fact that there is absolutely no basis in this theory for accounting for the environmental impacts of economic activities or for positing viable economic solutions to environmental problems. The unfortunate result is that the manner in which we are now coordinating global economic activities is a program for ecological disaster, and we may soon arrive at the point where massive changes in the global environment will threaten the lives of billions of people. To avoid this prospect, Nadeau argues that we must develop and implement an environmentally responsible economic theory and describes how this can be accomplished.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the issues and challenges involved in analyzing the costs and program design for US policies dealing with forest carbon sequestration. Although many of the issues are couched in terms of implementing a US carbon sequestration program, many apply equally well to the design of an international program.
The first section of the paper examines some of the pitfalls of comparing the results of carbon sequestration cost studies and suggests some simple ways which analysts could make their results more useful. The second section of the paper reviews issues related to the implementation of a carbon sequestration program, including which policy tools are available and which have received the most attention, some of the challenges for using those policy tools, and one alternative that has received little attention, but may become necessary. The final section of the paper provides conclusions."
Presentation on: INRM and research and development in agro-forestry; RUPES; and Setting for Developing Markets for Environmental Services (Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam).
This case study was written at the beginning of the trading program and highlights the regulatory and stakeholder issues regarding establishing the permit. It gives a good overview of the basic concepts employed in setting up the permit and trading system including: equivalence, additionality and accountability. While the case study does not give any insights in to the success of the implementation of the program, the eligible trades include livestock exclusions, reduced soil erosion rotational grazing and wetland treatment.
This review finds that the quantifiable benefits of forest preservation in providing hydrological services and nontimber forest products are highly variable. Locally important in some situations, these classes of domestic benefits may, in general, be smaller than popularly supposed. This underscores the need for financing conservation from the Global Environmental Facility or other global sources rather than placing the burden entirely on domestic resources.
Enviro-Capitalists persuasively demonstrates why Americans should turn to entrepreneurs in the private sector rather than the federal government to guarantee protection and improvement of environmental quality. This book provides numerous examples of entrepreneurial approaches that emphasize using markets and private property rights to protect amenity values in water, land, and wildlife. Anderson and Leal offer refreshing and positive alternatives to traditional thinking about the environment.
What Price Biodiversity? Economic Incentives and Biodiversity Conservation in the United States, demonstrates that the price of protecting biodiversity is both acceptable and affordable. What Price Biodiversity? describes existing programs that are working to give private citizens economic incentives to protect wildlife and habitat. It also suggests policy changes that wouuld save money and protect biodiversity by removing damaging subsidies. The report addresses the arguments behind the current takings dispute and describes efficient ways of strengthening the relationship between economic health and conservation.
This paper presents an introduction to economic incentives for the conservation of biodiversity. It is intended for use by government and private sector representatives who wish to design and implement policies that encourage private sector participation in conservation activities. Part II outlines the legal mechanisms that allow private actors to support conservation. Part III reviews the types of tax policies that can reward landowners for using these conservation mechanisms. Part IV discusses several other economic instruments, such as user fees and performance bonds, and also notes opportunities to eliminate "perverse" incentives that encourage destruction of biodiversity. Part V includes a list of recommendations intended to distill some of the ideas presented.
Biodiversity and the Law is a timely and provocative volume that combines historical perspective and cutting-edge legal analysis in an authoritative and broad discussion of biodiversity and the law. Leading legal and policy experts consider a variety of options for the worldwide protection of biodiversity and present a succinct but comprehensive overview of the legal mechanisms available. They examine how conservation advocates can better utilize existing law, and consider what new law is needed. Among the topics considered are: scientific and policy foundations of biodiveristy protection, domestic efforts to establish an effective endangered species protection regime, international biodiversity protection, biodiversity as a genuinely public entity, and the future of biodiversity law.
Our Ecological Footprint" presents an internationally-acclaimed tool for measuring and visualizing the resources required to sustain our households, communities, regions and nations, converting the seemingly complex concepts of carrying capacity, resource-use, waste-disposal and the like into a graphic form that everyone can grasp and use.