Access the publication here.
While a number of researchers and organizations in the US and internationally have highlighted the potential impacts of mitigation efforts on tenure, there remains minimal information and best practice on how to practically address these issues at the field level. Emerging interventions to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and enhance forest carbon stocks (REDD+) pose potential opportunities and risks for the rights of rural populations in developing countries. In many countries, the right of local populations to benefit from REDD+ activities requires further clarification. As a result, there are lessons to be learned from countries that are progressing on REDD+ or have experience with payment for environmental services (PES). PRRGP’s work on REDD+ over the past ten months has examined 1) trends and opportunities for the devolution of rights to local populations; 2) how tenure relates to the right to benefit from REDD+ revenues, and 3) early experiences with and best practices on governance systems for benefit distribution.
Framework papers have been developed on each of these topics, as well as provide insights from country case studies in Indonesia, Nepal, Mozambique, Mexico, Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The work has resulted in the development of two tools related to a carbon rights guidebook and an analytical tool for assessing benefit distribution institutions which will be released in the coming months.
Working papers are available on:
- Devolution of Forest Rights and Sustainable Forest Management: A Review of Policies and Programs in 16 Developing Countries
- Devolution of Forest Rights and Sustainable Forest Management: Country Case Studies
- REDD+ and Carbon Rights: Lessons from the Field
- REDD+ and Carbon Rights: Case studies from Mexico, Indonesia, Nepal, Tanzania and Mozambique
- Institutional Mechanisms for REDD+ Framework Paper
- Institutional Mechanisms for REDD+: Case studies from Mexico, Indonesia, Nepal, Tanzania and Democratic Republic of Congo
- Issues Brief: Land Tenure and REDD+: Risks to Property Rights and Opportunities for Economic Growth
***Working Papers and presentations on each of the framework papers are accessible here
Feedback on the working papers is welcome and can be delivered to: email@example.com
“Connecting the Drops: Toward Creative Water Strategies” includes a suite of learning modules, case studies, and resources to help businesses develop sound water strategies. The toolkit offers guidance in assessing water use and impacts, identifying risks and opportunties, and developing systems for tracking and managing water resource management. “Connecting the Drops: Toward Creative Water Strategies” also includes a comprehensive overview of the business case for water sustainability.
“Collecting the Drops: A Water Sustainability Planner” is a set of tools developed by the Global Environmental Management Initiative (GEMI) to help businesses assess their water use and impacts, and better understand how water resources management can affect “license to operate.” The toolkit will be especially useful to facilities staff and/or a business’ operating division, and includes training modules on water use and impacts and water management risk assessment, impact calculators, and case examples.
From March 12th to 17th 2007, 24 individuals from 13 countries met at the Rockefeller
Foundation’s Bellagio Center at Lake Como (Italy) to discuss lessons learned from
recent global experiences with payments for watershed services (PWS). The
selection of participants reflected a desire to bring together a mix of:
• Practitioners—managers who are actually implementing PWS schemes;
• Investigators—researchers who have been directly involved in studying the
design and implementation of PWS schemes; and
• Investors—intermediaries who have the potential to invest in PWS initiatives.
Between them, these practitioners, investigators and investors had experience of nine
payments for watershed services schemes and detailed knowledge of 15 more.
The goal of the Bellagio meeting was to consider how these experiences and
knowledge could be used to improve the efficiency of watershed management.
We believe that the resulting “Bellagio Conversations” can help shed light on some
of the most important, pressing, complex and under-discussed PWS issues. Our
hope is that these conversations will encourage others to tackle the opportunities
and challenges of payments for watershed services.
This is a short guide for Indigenous land managers
and those who work with Indigenous communities
to the phenomenon of climate change,
and to ‘market’ and financial mechanisms for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, often referred
to as the ‘carbon market’, ’emissions trading’
and/or ‘carbon financing’. This guide is intended
as a first edition – it is hoped that future editions will include even more case studies of Indigenous involvement with the carbon market and
will focus on particular geographical regions.
This report shows that in the Gulf of California, fisheries landings are positively related to the local abundance of mangroves and, in particular, to the productive area in the mangrove-water fringe that is used as nursery and/or feeding grounds by many commercial species.
Mangroves are disappearing rapidly worldwide despite their well documented biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. Failure to link ecological processes and their societal benefits has favored highly destructive agquaculture and tourism developments that threaten mangroves and result in costly “externalities.” Specifically, the potentially irreparable damage to fisheries because of mangrove loss has been belittled and is greatly underestimated.
Mangrove-related fish and crab species account for 32% of the small-scale fisheries landings in the region. The annual economic median value of these fisheries is US $37,500 per hectare previously calculated worldwide for all mangrove services together. The ten-year discounted value of one hectare of fringe is > 300 times the official cost set by Mexican government. The destruction of mangroves has a strong economic impact on local fishing communities and on food production in the region. Our valuation of the services provided by mangroves may prove useful in making appropriate decisions for a more efficient and sustainable use of wetlands.
This report finds that the transition did continue in the 2002–2008 period. The area of state ownership
declined, and there were corresponding increases in the area of forests designated for use by communities and indigenous peoples, the area owned by communities and indigenous peoples, and the area owned by individuals and firms.
Though the tenure transition continues, progress is mixed. Among the main problems are that: governments
retain a firm grip on the majority of forests and the forest tenure transition is slow; statutory reforms do not always result in more secure tenure; action on human, civil, political, and gender rights is also necessary to improve well-being, and progress on this front is slow; the area of industrial concessions still greatly exceeds the area of forest designated for use by, or owned by, communities and indigenous peoples; industrial claims on forest lands are increasing sharply, for biofuels production among other reasons;
and some governments are performing poorly in carrying out the reform process.
However, there is good news: many new national reforms have been announced in 2002–2008 recognizing
forest land access and ownership of local people; research results add to the evidence that strengthened forest tenure for communities and individuals can improve well-being, enable exclusion of outside claimants, and improve forest management and conservation; world attention to climate change offers the possibility of increasing the bargaining power of forest peoples; and there is evidence of growth in the movement to strengthen local forest tenure.
The report closes with recommendations on how the forest tenure reform process can be carried forward.
Case study of the La Aguada and Siembra del Agua PES projects in Bolivia.
Case study reporting on the PWS case in Pimampiro, Ecuador that maintained forest cover and ensure clean water supplies.
This document attempts to simplify the information available on hydrological services of forests and other natural systems. It summarizes for practitioners what has been published as potential land use practices and helps to focus hydrological data gathering and research efforts.
In Guatemala, Conservation International and the
Guatemalan NGO ProPeten tried to negotiate a
conservation concession with local communities in
the Maya Biosphere. According to the terms of the
agreement, the communities would forgo their logging
rights in exchange for annual lease payments.
Although no agreement was ever established, this
experience still offers valuable insight into
In southern Guyana, Conservation International
(CI) leased a conservation concession to prevent
logging, and to ensure the preservation of natural
biodiversity and wildlife within the forest
“ICMS ecolí³gico” is a tax-revenue
proportioning scheme in Brazil designed to
effectively protect land for the purpose of
improving water quality and biodiversity.
The project seeks to compensate counties and municipalities for their active stewardship in abstaining from unsustainable exploitation of protected areas. Historically, local communities had been reluctant to set aside these lands or effectively comply with restrictions on their use because it limited possibilities for revenue generation and economic growth.
In Brazil, rubber tappers are subsidized to promote the preservation of biodiversity in the Amazon basin. The subsidy is intended to discourage alternative industries, such as logging and cattle ranching, which threaten the sustainability of the rainforest.
Drawing on modern data, this book considers the political, economic, scientific, and technological issues highlighting the growing crisis for many regional water systems. The book looks at some of the major trends in water technology and policy. It suggests policies and strategies to improve the rational use and distribution of water.
Synthesis paper on various PES cases.
"This report summarizing the findings of a conference which gathered participants from development agencies, non-governmental organizations, private companies,
research institutes, and universities in 15 countries. The link between energy and access to water for drinking and irrigation was a primary outcome. The report gives useful insights from those implementing water and energy solutions."
World Bank Advises Better Forest Governance And Use of Carbon Markets to Save Tropical Forests
Available in: French, Spanish, Portuguese, Bahasa (Indonesian)
WASHINGTON, D.C., October 23, 2006 — Preserving the world's rapidly shrinking tropical forests and improving the economic prospects of millions of poor people requires an urgent strengthening of national forest governance. Globally, this calls for strong financial incentives, says a new World Bank policy research report, "At Loggerheads? Agricultural Expansion, Poverty Reduction and Environment in the Tropical Forests."
A majority of people in rural tropical areas — about 800 million — live in or around vulnerable forests or woodlands, depending on them heavily for survival. Yet deforestation at five percent a decade is steadily depleting this resource base, contributing to 20 percent of annual global CO2 emissions and seriously threatening biodiversity.
"Global carbon finance can be a powerful incentive to stop deforestation," said François Bourguignon, Chief Economist and Senior Vice President, Development Economics, the World Bank. "Compensation for avoiding deforestation could help developing countries to improve forest governance and boost rural incomes, while helping the world at large to mitigate climate change more vigorously."
In Latin America, dense tropical forest is often cleared to create pastures worth as little as $300 a hectare, while releasing large amounts of CO2. In Africa and Asia, some deforestation is equally unproductive. These forests may be worth five times more if left standing, providing carbon storage services, than if cleared and burned. If developing countries could tap this value, they could also stimulate more productive agriculture in degraded areas, while preserving the environmental services of forests.
But current carbon markets do not tap the potential benefits of forest carbon. The report reviews the obstacles impeding the use of global carbon finance to reduce deforestation, and offers workable solutions.
"Now is the time to reduce pressures on tropical forests through a comprehensive framework that integrates sustainable forest management into the global strategy for mitigating climate change and preserving biodiversity," said Katherine Sierra, Vice President, Sustainable Development, the World Bank.
Deforestation is driven largely by economic incentives to expand agriculture, with varying returns. In Madagascar, poor people clear forests for tiny, short-term gains. In Brazil, commercial farmers clear cerrado and forests for large profits. In both, the rate and profitability of deforestation are influenced by changes in agricultural prices.
"It is said that people destroy forests because they are poor, and that deforestation causes poverty-but generalizations are a poor foundation for policy," said Kenneth Chomitz, the report's lead author. "We find that deforestation is caused by both rich and poor people-and it can either destroy or create assets for poor people."
The report offers a simple framework for policy analysis by identifying three forest types-frontiers and disputed lands, lands beyond the agricultural frontier, and mosaiclands where forests and agriculture coexist. It collates geographic and economic information for each type that will help formulate poverty-reducing forest policy.
The report highlights distinct priorities for each forest type, where deforestation incentives, remoteness, forest rights, and environment interact differently:
In frontier and disputed areas, sorting out and guaranteeing forest rights is critical to mitigate deforestation, reduce conflicts, and improve rural livelihoods
In areas beyond the agricultural frontier, such as the Amazon and Congo basins, and the hearts of Borneo, New Guinea and Sulawesi, quick action to head off the social and environmental impacts of future agricultural expansion is the main challenge.
For often overlooked mosaiclands, where people and trees are most closely integrated, the report's suggestions include payments for environmental services programs. For example, a GEF-sponsored project in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua pays farmers to maintain their forests and shift cattle from degraded pastures to agroforestry systems, which offer carbon and biodiversity benefits.
According to the report, the causes of forest poverty include remoteness, which often impedes forest dwellers from marketing forest products. Millions of forest dwellers lack forest rights, without secure tenure or access to forest resources, or live in degraded areas. Inadequate skills, technologies, or institutions can also depress forest incomes.
New technologies and institutions could help poor people to counterbalance powerful competing interests that tend to capture forest resources, and could help society harmonize environmental and regional development goals. For example, the proposed use of tradable forest protection obligations in Brazil could increase the biodiversity benefits of land use regulations while making it easier for landholders to comply.
Cameroon's reforms include transparent allocation of forest concessions and royalties, and the employment of independent observers who use remote sensing to detect illegal logging.
The report and associate material are available at:
Presentation looking at institutional and legal frameworks a sustainable development policy. Based on the successful PES program in Costa Rica.
El articulo en las paginas 105-144 de este documento sintetiza el marco normativo e institucional actualmente vigente respecto de los diversos mecanismos de regulacion de la compensacion por servicios ambientales en varios paises de America Latina.
Su objetivo primordial es describir el marco legal de los diferentes esquemas que se encuentran en funcionamiento o que funcionaron anteriormente en la region, de modo que puedan ser utilizados como referencias para la implementacion futura de mecanismos similares en otros paises. Solo recoge y describe las experiencias, sin analizarlas.
A presentation addressing key questions in how to include low income producers in ecosystem service markets.
The valuable environmental services provided by natural ecosystems are too often lost as a result of mismanagement and lack of incentives to preserve them. Helping countries find innovative solutions to such problems–which intersect with livelihood, vulnerability, and health issues–is a key element of the World Bank's Environment Strategy. The Bank's innovative work on payment for environmental services (PES) is an example of these efforts.
These case studies are valuable for how they demonstrate different types of payment mechanisms from cap and trade nutrient trading in the US to direct payments to land owners by corporations and government entities. With brief bibliographies and a consistent format this is an excellent document to gain an overall understanding of the important elements of water related land management transactions.
This publication describes the direct link between environmental degradation and rural poverty. Drawing on examples from a number of countries (including Chile, Cameroon, Ghana, El Salvador, Paraguay, East Timor, and Colombia), it details the cycle of over-exploitation of the environment, loss of cultural, political and economic self-determination, inequity, hunger and poverty. On the positive side, the report highlights cases in which community-based natural resource management has enabled people to gain access to and control over these resources, thereby realising the possibility of povery reduction.
This paper aims to help demystify PES for non-economists, starting with a simple and coherent definition of the term. It then provides practical 'how-to' hints for PES design. It considers the likely niche for PES in the portfolio of conservation approaches. It concludes that service users will continue to drive PES, but their willingness to pay will only rise if schemes can demonstrate clear additionality vis-í -vis carefully established baselines, if trust-building processes with service providers are sustained, and PES recipients' livelihood dynamics is better understood. PES best suits intermediate and/or projected threat scenarios, often in marginal lands with moderate conservation opportunity costs. People facing credible but medium-sized environmental degradation are more likely to become PES recipients than those living in relative harmony with Nature. The choice between PES cash and in-kind payments is highly context-dependent. Poor PES recipients are likely to gain from participation, though their access might be constrained and non-participating landless poor could lose out. PES is a highly promising conservation approach that can benefit buyers, sellers and improve the resource base, but it is unlikely to completely outstrip other conservation instruments.
Presentation given to the Katoomba Working Group III in Teresopolis, March 26, 2001 on: "Markets for Biodiversity products & services"
This brief case study outlines a deal set up in Costa Rica's Guanacaste Conservation Area (GCA). The GCA signed an agreement with a local orange growing company whereby the company agrees to pay the conservation area for a bundled set, or pooled variety of ecosystem services, including the biological control of pests on the company's plantations by parasitic wasps living in the park.
This document condenses the learning from the Case Studies of Markets and Innovative Financial Mechanisms for Water Services from Forests in to an overview for those interested in creating or participating in these types of markets. It looks at both the potential benefits and pitfalls of ecosystem service markets and how linking the payment to actions that actually create desired benefits is difficult. With an easy to understand format this is an excellent introductory and overview document.
Bioprospectors head into the deepest parts of the jungle, scale the highest mountains and, generally, brave extreme conditions in their quest for "green gold" — plants and animals with commercially valuable properties. With the Amazon alone harboring medicinal plants capable of treating anything from parasite infections to malaria, toothaches to diabetes, the potential rewards are astronomical. But who will reap them?