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Emissions Trading, Carbon Financing and Indigenous People

This is a short guide for Indigenous land managers and those who work with Indigenous communities to the phenomenon of climate change, and to ‘market’ and financial mechanisms for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, often referred to as the ‘carbon market’, ’emissions trading’ and/or ‘carbon financing’. This guide is intended as a first edition – it […]


Sustainable Resource Management in Malawi

The Lake Chilwa Wetland Project in Malawi attempts to prevent the overexploitation of Lake Chilwa’s natural wealth and biodiversity. The project developed community groups and institutions to sustainably manage the resources. As markets already existed locally for the lake’s natural products, the purpose was to insure the continuation of the resource extraction while maintaining the […]


Sasumua Water Treatment Plant – Kenya

The Sasumua Water Treatment Plant is an innovate payment for ecosystem services project still in development, which seeks to provide water quality services by paying upstream farmers and pastoralists to change their cultivation practices. Though not yet fully operational, the Sasumua case highlights many strengths of PES, as well as many of the factors strongly […]


The Kunene Region Torra Conservancy

The Torra Conservancy, a community initiated conservation and rural economic development project, was established in 1998 to protect the local ecosystem and encourage development of income-generating activities for the local community.


Watamu Turle Watch Nest Protection Programme

The Nest Protection Programme in Watamu Beach, Kenya was established in 1997. The program was created in response to the decimation of the reproductive capacity of the local turtle population, due primarily to turtle egg poaching from the Watamu nesting site. It was estimated that prior to the implementation of the program, 100% of all […]


Working for Water: PES in South Africa

In South Africa, Working for Water provides one of the longest-standing and most successful examples of payments for ecosystem services (PES). Initiated in 1995 just one year after the end of apartheid, the program organizes poor South Africans in local communities to eradicate invasive alien plants (IAPs) through country’s Department of Water Affairs and Forestry.


The World's Water

Drawing on modern data, this book considers the political, economic, scientific, and technological issues highlighting the growing crisis for many regional water systems. The book looks at some of the major trends in water technology and policy. It suggests policies and strategies to improve the rational use and distribution of water.


A Green Thumb for the Invisible Hand

This is a brief overview about the changing political and economic climate on climate change in the US. It includes an analysis on issues related to carbon trading and its role in influencing policy.


Net Pay: Economic Analysis of Mangrove Restoration

A presentation given at the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies International Society of Tropcial Forestry conference, March 2, 2007. The presentation discusses methods of economic valuation for the ecosystem services of mangrove restoration. It also deals with efforts in Kenya to restore mangrove forests and to ensure that the local people involved in […]


GEF-FAO Workshop on Productive Uses of Renewable Energy: Experience, Strategies, and Project Development

"This report summarizing the findings of a conference which gathered participants from development agencies, non-governmental organizations, private companies, research institutes, and universities in 15 countries. The link between energy and access to water for drinking and irrigation was a primary outcome. The report gives useful insights from those implementing water and energy solutions."


At Loggerheads? Agricultural Expansion, Poverty Reduction, and Environment in the Tropical Forests

World Bank Advises Better Forest Governance And Use of Carbon Markets to Save Tropical Forests Available in: French, Spanish, Portuguese, Bahasa (Indonesian) WASHINGTON, D.C., October 23, 2006 — Preserving the world's rapidly shrinking tropical forests and improving the economic prospects of millions of poor people requires an urgent strengthening of national forest governance. Globally, this […]


Central Africa Financing Mechanisms

This feasibility study analyzes the opportunities and constraints for introducing new conservation finance mechanisms in Central Africa. The study covers the recommendations for conservation finance mechanisms in Central Africa — including environmental trust funds, debt relief mechanisms, forestry-based carbon offset projects, user fees, charges and taxes, and private sector initiatives.


Economic benefits of biodiversity exceed costs of conservation at an African rainforest reserve

This paper quantifies the costs and benefits of avian biodiversity at a rainforest reserve in Uganda through a combination of economic surveys of tourists, spatial land-use analyses, and species-area relationships. The paper argues that although conventional wisdom suggests that biodiversity conservation is often a noncompetitive form of land use and, therefore, requires subsidising, the authors' […]


Nature: poor people's wealth, the importance of natural resources in poverty eradication

This publication describes the direct link between environmental degradation and rural poverty. Drawing on examples from a number of countries (including Chile, Cameroon, Ghana, El Salvador, Paraguay, East Timor, and Colombia), it details the cycle of over-exploitation of the environment, loss of cultural, political and economic self-determination, inequity, hunger and poverty. On the positive side, […]


Payments for environmental services: some nuts and bolts

This paper aims to help demystify PES for non-economists, starting with a simple and coherent definition of the term. It then provides practical 'how-to' hints for PES design. It considers the likely niche for PES in the portfolio of conservation approaches. It concludes that service users will continue to drive PES, but their willingness to […]