Private Property in the 21st Century: The Future of an American Ideal

Private property is central to American character, culture and democracy. America’s farmers understood it as key to the liberties the new country was designed to foster. But private property has not stood still. Over the last 200+ years, private property has changed as American society has changed. What one owns in 2003 in not what one would have owned in 1776, 1865 or 1903. How will private property continue to change in the 21st century? This question, and the challenges it offers for democracy and community, is the focus of this book.

Leadership, accountability and partnership

This report discusses the main themes relating to corporate social responsibility (CSR), as identified by the Kennedy School of Government, University of Harvard. The aim of the report was to study and enhance the effectiveness of CSR through wide and diverse participant survey responses. Recommendations for future avenues of research are also identified.

From our forest to your medicine cabinet

International pharmaceutical companies have been collaborating with Costa Rica's National Institute of Biodiversity (INBio), in a relationship where in return for access to the country's rich trove of biological diversity as a potential source of raw materials for drugs, the firms provided INBio with extensive training and sophisticated equipment. INBio uses its expertise to help small firms in Costa Rica develop products based on sustainable use of biodiversity. With the help of a $1.6 million grant from the IDB's Multilateral Investment Fund, INBio launched the project Support to the Use of Biodiversity by Small Enterprises.

National Environmental Accounting: Bridging the Gap Between Ecology and Economy

This book presents national environmental, or "green" accounting as it has developed in Europe and other parts of the world. It introduces the most recent methods developed through the United Nations Statistical Department and other international organizations, but bridges the gap between the superficial treatment of environmental accounting in economics textbooks and environmental literature, on the one hand, and the highly technical manuals of international organizations, on the other.

Borrowed from the Future: Challenges and Guidelines for Community-Based Natural Resource Management

Based on 30 years of experience, Dr. Clay identifies in this report some of the many obstacles that thwart community-based enterprises success; and he provides a set of ten guidelines for shaping community-based natural resource management in the future. The document addresses some of the critical issues in community-based natural resource management: Does community-based natural resource management provide a feasible solution for the combined problems of environmentaldegradation and increasing human poverty and inequality? Does the emergence of Internet-based communications, "green markets," and the recognition of the vast array of environmental services provided by nature – but seldom valued in the market prices of products – make obsolete the whole notion of grassroots development? Or do the principal characteristics of contemporary economic globalization make obsolete the very hope for locally based, environmentally sensitive small-scale enterprises in a world of global "branding," distributed global production, and increasing concentration in so many industries?

A Place in the World: A Review of the Global Debate on Tenure Security

Property rights have a profound effect on who benefits from forests. Ellsworth asserts that "the increasingly influential neoliberal property rights school of analysis 'over-emphasizes' the virtues of property rights defined in terms of market trading." Of particular worry are that market-based approaches may create new risks to tenure security, rather than alleviate them, and may lead to unfair and inefficient allocation of natural assets.

Can a Financial Instrument Improve the Management of Natural Ecosystems?

This report highlights the opportunities presented by the 2000 Amendment to the 1995 Pensions Act in the UK to improve companies' management of natural capital, including ecosystems, the services they deliver and the millions of animal and plant species that constitute biological diversity.

Financing national protected area networks internationally: the Global Environment Facility as a multilateral mechanism of transfer

This paper addresses the functioning of the present multilateral system for international financing of national protected areas. The paper claims that taken together, this system does not represent a homogenous institutional mechanism but a patchwork of several multilateral institutions and bilateral contractual relationships. The paper particularly analyses the Global Environment Facility (GEF) that serves a mechanism of transfer for the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). It looks at how the GEF creates incentives for existing and proposed networks of protection and establishes a compensation scheme at the international level.

Creating Markets for Ecosystem Services: Notes From the Field

In recent years, a number of initiatives around the world have sought to create markets for ecosystem services, some dependent on government intervention and some entirely private ventures. This paper and presentation will review the status of these projects, discuss their challenges and successes, and reflect on Jim Salzman's recent experience with establishing a market for water quality in Australia.

Where the Trees are a Desert – Stories from the Ground

This emotional report by Carbon Trade Watch gives voice to Brazilians' struggles against the ever-expanding eucalyptus monoculture. The collection of articles cover the social and environmental problems associated with including mono-culture plantations in carbon trading programs, using Brazil as a case study. The authors believe that the eucalyptus plantations, which have been used for decades for paper pulp or charcoal production, are devastating the environment and lives of the local population of Brazil. They go on to argue that since the advent of "carbon trading" under the Kyoto Protocol, such damaging monocultural plantations are being encouraged.

Problem Is Shortage of Capacity, Not Revenue Sources

Andreas Merkl, executive director of US-based Conservation and Community Investment Forum (CCIF), points to a considerable pool of potential capital from conventional sources. Merkl explains that this capital is unlikely to be committed unless the capacity to deliver protected area services at a meaningful scale with unassailable accountability is dramatically improved over current levels.

US Power Industry and Incentive Based Mechanisms – Focus on Water Issues

In this presentation Adam Davis, working for the US based Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), reviews water related issues facing the electric power industry and gives examples of payment opportunities for landowners. He looks at incentive systems, water rights transfer markets and pollutant trading markets. He gives an interesting example of habitat creation as an alternative to offset environmental impacts of power plants.

Beyond Carbon Emerging Nexus Emerging Nexus Solar

Through examples and conceptual diagrams WorldWater Corporation presents the opportunity to combined solar energy and water pumping to provide water where it is currently unavailable, give added security to water treatment and supply plants for industrialized utilities and reduce pumping costs and emissions from diesel generators used by farmers. This powerful concept is demonstrated through projects in the Philippines and California. This basic concept shows the applicability for diverse settings, including a payment driven mechanism for the rural poor.

Interlinkages between biological diversity and climate change

This report provides background and advice on the integration of biodiversity considerations into the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. The report provides scientific basis for the development of recommendations for each convention. The key points of the report include: 1) within the context of the Kyoto Protocol, additionality, leakage, permanence, and uncertainties, are important concepts for carbon storage in relation with the implementation of mitigation activities, 2) agroforestry systems have substantial potential to sequester carbon and can reduce soil erosion, moderate climate extremes on crops, improve water quality, and provide goods and services to local people, 3) national, regional and possibly international systems of criteria and indicators are useful in monitoring and evaluating the impact of climate change and mitigation and adaptation activities.

Developing new income streams for farmers – NSW Environmental Services Scheme: Progress Report on Outcomes and Experience Developed during its Implementation

This progress report describes the experiences of the NSW Environmental Services Scheme as of 2003. The primary aim of the Environmental Services Scheme is to look at some of the practical issues that will arise in the development of a market to support the environmental services produced on-farm. These include the costs associated with including environmental services within rural production, how to define and create ownership of the services produced, and the types of financial, contractual and incentive arrangements necessary. So far, the reception from implementing agencies, landholders and the rural community, has been very positive.

A Comparison of Japanese, Canadian, and EU Policies on Forest Carbon Sinks

This report compares the approaches of the governments of Japan, Canada, and the European Union member countries toward using carbon sinks to meet their respective Kyoto Protocol carbon reduction targets. Various policies have been proposed by which governments can sequester carbon by promoting afforestation and reforestation, slowing deforestation, and undertaking forest management activities under Articles 3.3 and 3.4. Japan appears most likely to rely most heavily on forest and biological sinks to meet its Kyoto targets. For Canada, sinks are likely to play a rather modest role. For the EU, the role of sinks is likely to be even smaller, with sinks playing no role for some EU countries (including Sweden, our case study country). Although some of the details of various carbon emissions reduction programs have been worked out, the authors point out how concrete definitions are often still lacking, especially as regards impermanence of forests, additionality, leakage, and socioeconomic and environmental impacts.

Annex 1 Parties’ current and potential CER demand

This Canadian study analyzes the effect forest management has on net carbon sequestration, including, as separate entities, net carbon storage in litter, soils, wood products and landfills. Five forest management activities are analyzed using two forest types (Nova Scotia Red Spruce and Coastal Douglas Fir) as examples. The following activities are analyzed: pre-commercial thinning; commercial thinning for pulp; commercial thinning for pulp and lumber; increasing the rotation length; and increasing the amount of slash used for biofuel.

A Comparison of Japanese, Canadian, and EU Policies on Forest Carbon Sinks

This report compares the approaches of the governments of Japan, Canada, and the European Union member countries toward using carbon sinks to meet their respective Kyoto Protocol carbon reduction targets. Various policies have been proposed by which governments can sequester carbon by promoting afforestation and reforestation, slowing deforestation, and undertaking forest management activities under Articles 3.3 and 3.4. Japan appears most likely to rely most heavily on forest and biological sinks to meet its Kyoto targets. For Canada, sinks are likely to play a rather modest role. For the EU, the role of sinks is likely to be even smaller, with sinks playing no role for some EU countries (including Sweden, our case study country). Although some of the details of various carbon emissions reduction programs have been worked out, the authors point out how concrete definitions are often still lacking, especially as regards impermanence of forests, additionality, leakage, and socioeconomic and environmental impacts.

Annex 1 Parties’ current and potential CER demand

Examines demand for Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs) under the Kyoto Protocol. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of Annex I countries’ current and projected distance from their respective Kyoto target, and documents their current policy regarding how they intend to make use of CERs to meet their commitments. Reviews and analyses key Annex I countries’ existing agreements or MoUs on CDM projects with non-Annex I countries, as well as outlining project and price expectations, and other preferences relating to choice of host countries. Finally, the paper provides an overview of established and emerging initiatives (tenders etc.) taken by Annex I government with the aim of acquiring CERs.

Water Quality Trading Frequently Asked Questions for Clean Water Services Permit

This is one of several documents regarding the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality's watershed-based waste discharge for Clean Water Services. The set of documents, including the NPDES permit itself, show the types of documents and issues that must be addressed when establishing tradable pollutant credits. The focus of this document is on temperature and oxygen demand parameters.

WWF Living Planet report 2004

This report assesses the current state of the world's ecosystems, as well as the human pressures on natural resource consumption, known as the ecological footprint. The report highlights the fact that humans are currently consuming 20% more natural resources than the earth can produce. The report also finds that from 1970 to 2000, populations of terrestrial and marine species dropped by 30%, while freshwater populations plummeted by a dramatic 50%. WWF claims that this is a direct consequence of increasing human demand for food, fibre, energy and water.

Biodiversity: Its Importance to Human Health

Biodiversity: Its Importance to Human Health is an international scientific effort to compile what is known about how other species contribute to human health. The purpose of the intirim report is to help guide policy-makers in developing innovative and equitable policies based on sound science that will effectively preserve biodiversity and promote human health for present and future generations to come. A full-length book expanding on this report will follow.

A New Agenda for Forest Conservation and Poverty Reduction: Making Markets Work for Low-Income Producers

The dominant forestry models are increasingly inappropriate… A fundamental re-assessment of the role of forests in rural development, and the role of local people in forest conservation, is urgently needed. The authors of this title lay out a set of strategies to promote forest market development in ways that positively contribute to local livelihoods and community development in low- and middle-income countries.

Report of the Conservation Innovations Task Force

This report documents a general discussion among the Conservation Innovations Task Force (CITF) members revealing "the remarkable variability among state and local conservation programs and needs nationwide. This brainstorming session on emerging issues of importance to the National Conservation Partnership (NCP) led to the identification of seven substantive areas that need to be addressed in future conservation programs: partnerships, national policy and programs, education, energy, trading and market-driven approaches, urban conservation, and marketing."

Compensation for Environmental Services and Rural Communities

This report presents the findings of the "Payment for Environmental Services in the Americas" project (1999-2003), coordinated by PRISMA and supported by the Ford Foundation, as well as PRISMA's framework for the compensation of environmental services from the perspective of peasant and indige-nous communities… The research underpinning this publication was motivated by an overriding concern for equity and a special focus on those 'closest' to the land. The underlying interest was to explore if the PES concept could contribute to overcoming the inequities in the Poor's access to, control over and benefits from their natural resources, while guaranteeing the provision of environmental services.

The social impacts of payments for environmental services in Costa Rica. A quantitative field survey and analysis of the Virilla watershed

In 1996 Costa Rica implemented an innovative programme of Payments for Environmental Services (PES). Through this programme, forest and plantation owners are financially and legally acknowledged for the environmental services their forests provide to the community, both nationally and globally. By means of a case study of the Virilla watershed in Costa Rica, and using as a basis for analysis the Sustainable Livelihoods framework, this report examines the impacts the PES programme has on financial, human, social, physical and environmental capital.

What are we learning from experiences with markets for environmental services in Costa Rica? A review and critique of the literature

The use of markets and payments for environmental services is a topic gaining interest among policy-makers and practitioners worldwide. In the developing world, Costa Rica has led efforts to experiment with the application of these mechanisms. This paper examines the literature regarding the Costa Rica experience to see what we are learning – how technical, scientific and economic information on environmental services has fed into these initiatives, and to what extent these experiences are being monitored and evaluated. The principal objective of the literature review is to identify and review material that addresses inter alia the local origins and development of the concept of payments and markets for environmental services, the types of existing initiatives and who is participating in them, the knowledge base underpinning market development, the monitoring and evaluation of the initiatives to date and to what extent the literature assesses these initiatives in terms of economic efficiency, environmental effectiveness, and social equity and/or poverty reduction.