In this paper, CCIF explains that conservation concessions enable host countries to capitalize on their ample supply of biodiversity-rich habitats and stimulate economic development by mimicking the payment structure of other business transactions and offer immediate, transparent protection for resources in question. The conservation community may have been quick to dismiss concessions for protected areas as a tool for developing countries. Indeed, with modifications based on local community norms, CCIF believes that concessions may be the perfect tool for conservation. By studying our competition in the commercial extraction industry, we find that we do in fact have an effective set of tools for creating protected areas. CCIF is currently designing a fund to establish and fund conservation concessions in Southeast Asia.
A report from the journal Environmental Health Perspectives on the connection between global environmental change, health, and medicine.
A case study written for the Vth IUCN World Parks Congress, Finance and Resources Stream: Regional Case Studies, Durban, South Africa.
A Powerpoint presentation given at the 5th World Parks Congress in Durban, South Africa, on the endowment model for marine protected area financing in Southeast Asia.
With support from USAID, WWF evaluated the Americas Funds debt-for-nature swap in Peru – established under the Enterprise for the Americas Initiative.
The purpose of this paper is to identify strategic opportunities for pollinator protection in North America. This work provides strategic approaches for active organizations dedicated to pollinator protection as well as for current and potential funders with funding opportunities for pollinator protection. Two major funding needs to further the field of pollinator protection were identified: one, gathering compelling evidence and two, strategic activities with large landowners. Currently, very few funders have made pollinator protection a focus of their programmatic grant making. There is a need to bring funders supporting related projects, such as biodiversity conservation and sustainable food systems, on board. The funding opportunities outlined in this report provide several examples that may be of interest to them.
Carbon annuities have been suggested as a means for rewarding landowners for preserving forests and sequestering carbon. Although this is an intuitively appealing approach, the benefits of the sequestration activities have not been compared with the opportunity cost of preserving the forest. This paper represents an initial attempt at analysing how large carbon annuities must be to induce a landowner in the Amazonian rainforest to accept the annuity and leave the forest intact. The benefits of carbon sequestration are computed based on estimates in the literature on the carbon contained in a hectare of rainforest and the damages associated with a ton of carbon emissions. This is compared with information on household income from Rondonia, Brazil. Our results show that, for the majority of our conservative assumptions about the damages of carbon emissions, the magnitude of an annuity is greater than the income from agriculture. For less conservative assumptions about the damages from global warming, a fraction of the annuity would be a sufficient incentive for small-scale farmers to switch to sustainable techniques that leave the forest intact.
This paper outlines the potential risks and opportunities associated with the Kyoto Climate Treaty with regards to biodiversity conservation. The authors argue that the Kyoto Protocol as currently written does little to advance solutions that benefit biodiversity, and in many ways could unwittingly promote further biodiversity loss from the kinds of projects it encourages, such as biomass monoculture plantations and hydro dams. They go on to discuss the sorts of carbon sequestration projects that have the potential to deliver impressive biodiversity and community benefits, and recommend that climate policymakers adopt rules and frameworks that will encourage the development of such “multiple benefit” projects.
In this book, ecologists, conservationists, lawyers, and atmospheric scientists detail the benefits of alternative market-based systems for reducing and sequestering the carbon emissions currently threatening the planet with global warming and the destruction of animal and human habitat. Swingland (a conservation biologist with The Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology) edits 20 chapters including electricity generation options for reduction in carbon emissions, species survival and carbon retention in commercially exploited tropical rainforest, and a legal analysis of carbon sinks and emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol. The book is most likely to appeal to the climate policy audience.
The authors contend that payments for watershed ecosystem services are frequently based of generalizations that may not be true in the watersheds where the program operates. Through tackling common myths about watershed management and looking at the need for monitoring and information collection, good science and institutional arrangements are encouraged to assure the intended results are produced from payment programs.
This paper begins to examine the close and critical relationships among: biodiversity and ecosystem services; the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD); and the goals set out in the UN Millennium Declaration, in particular the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
Can a large forest products company manage its lands for timber production and also increase habitat occupied by an endangered species? A plan developed by International Paper, Environmental Defense, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources is proving that it's possible.
This paper explores definition and measurement of ecosystem services, development of institutions and mechanisms to facilitate trade and integration of these instruments into the broader natural resource management agenda and toolbox, all with respect to pilot markets for ecosystem services in three case study catchments. Emphasis is placed on pilot selection rationale and identification of key facilitative mechanisms and institutions.
This Special Report discusses the global carbon cycle and how different land use and forestry activities currently affect standing carbon stocks and emissions of greenhouse gases. It also looks forward and examines future carbon uptake and emissions that may result from employing varying definitional scenarios and carbon accounting strategies, linked to the Kyoto Protocol, within the forestry and land-use sectors.
This evaluation has two areas of focus: (1) a general evaluation of the Enterprise for the Americas Environment Account (Americas Account) for Colombia, and (2) an institutional evaluation of ECOFONDO and the FFEA, the two organizations that have administered the Account. However, since ECOFONDO has not managed the Americas Account since 2000, emphasis has been given to the institutional evaluation of the FFEA.
This paper looks at the role of INBio's facilitation of bioprospecting to Costa Rica's quest to protect its biological wealth while simultaneously promoting the social and economic development. Gí¡mez concludes that INBio has assisted in Costa Rica's sustainable development by providing the country with vast and complex experience on access, legislation and uses of genetic and biochemical resources that facilitates the sustainable use of the country's biodiversity.
This OECD study explains that, when public or private natural areas charge entrance or other access fees to tourists, they in effect sell biodiversity to visitors. This market is perhaps the easiest to create in the context of natural area services, and resulting fee revenues can make substantial contributions to conservation. Indeed, tourism's financial and non-financial benefits often are important justifications for the establishment and management of natural areas. Nonetheless, many areas do not charge fees. Arguments for and against fees are described, and price responsiveness is discussed. Lastly, the conservation contribution of private reserves is reviewed.
The Ramsar discussion paper Economic Valuation of Wetlands on the River Basin Scale examines wetland ecosystem goods and services and relevant economic valuation methods, their applications, and constraints and limitations to their use. The paper provides an introduction to the concept of wetland ecosystem services and a menu of valuation methods with general and specific caveats related to their use.
This presentation given at the 2003 Katoomba Group meeting in Switzerland outlines a project by WWF in Central America to develop a Water Fund that would engage willing and financially able water users to pay for water related ecosystem services from the Sierra de las Minas Biosphere Reserve in Guatemala. The presentation outlines the steps to create a financial linkage between ecosystem services and the benefits to downstream users, as well as the watershed management opportunities to sustain and enhance these ecosystem services. The presentation concludes with an important set of considerations for anyone attempting to establish a market system for ecosystem services.
This comprehensive report looks at biodiversity, greenhouse gas and hydrological services as well as bundled services being paid for by various Costa Rican payment schemes. By looking each type of services the authors describe and evaluate each markets.
This report discusses the main themes relating to corporate social responsibility (CSR), as identified by the Kennedy School of Government, University of Harvard. The aim of the report was to study and enhance the effectiveness of CSR through wide and diverse participant survey responses. Recommendations for future avenues of research are also identified.
International pharmaceutical companies have been collaborating with Costa Rica's National Institute of Biodiversity (INBio), in a relationship where in return for access to the country's rich trove of biological diversity as a potential source of raw materials for drugs, the firms provided INBio with extensive training and sophisticated equipment. INBio uses its expertise to help small firms in Costa Rica develop products based on sustainable use of biodiversity. With the help of a $1.6 million grant from the IDB's Multilateral Investment Fund, INBio launched the project Support to the Use of Biodiversity by Small Enterprises.
This book presents national environmental, or "green" accounting as it has developed in Europe and other parts of the world. It introduces the most recent methods developed through the United Nations Statistical Department and other international organizations, but bridges the gap between the superficial treatment of environmental accounting in economics textbooks and environmental literature, on the one hand, and the highly technical manuals of international organizations, on the other.
Property rights have a profound effect on who benefits from forests. Ellsworth asserts that "the increasingly influential neoliberal property rights school of analysis 'over-emphasizes' the virtues of property rights defined in terms of market trading." Of particular worry are that market-based approaches may create new risks to tenure security, rather than alleviate them, and may lead to unfair and inefficient allocation of natural assets.
This report highlights the opportunities presented by the 2000 Amendment to the 1995 Pensions Act in the UK to improve companies' management of natural capital, including ecosystems, the services they deliver and the millions of animal and plant species that constitute biological diversity.
This paper addresses the functioning of the present multilateral system for international financing of national protected areas. The paper claims that taken together, this system does not represent a homogenous institutional mechanism but a patchwork of several multilateral institutions and bilateral contractual relationships. The paper particularly analyses the Global Environment Facility (GEF) that serves a mechanism of transfer for the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). It looks at how the GEF creates incentives for existing and proposed networks of protection and establishes a compensation scheme at the international level.
This emotional report by Carbon Trade Watch gives voice to Brazilians' struggles against the ever-expanding eucalyptus monoculture. The collection of articles cover the social and environmental problems associated with including mono-culture plantations in carbon trading programs, using Brazil as a case study. The authors believe that the eucalyptus plantations, which have been used for decades for paper pulp or charcoal production, are devastating the environment and lives of the local population of Brazil. They go on to argue that since the advent of "carbon trading" under the Kyoto Protocol, such damaging monocultural plantations are being encouraged.
Andreas Merkl, executive director of US-based Conservation and Community Investment Forum (CCIF), points to a considerable pool of potential capital from conventional sources. Merkl explains that this capital is unlikely to be committed unless the capacity to deliver protected area services at a meaningful scale with unassailable accountability is dramatically improved over current levels.
This report provides background and advice on the integration of biodiversity considerations into the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. The report provides scientific basis for the development of recommendations for each convention. The key points of the report include: 1) within the context of the Kyoto Protocol, additionality, leakage, permanence, and uncertainties, are important concepts for carbon storage in relation with the implementation of mitigation activities, 2) agroforestry systems have substantial potential to sequester carbon and can reduce soil erosion, moderate climate extremes on crops, improve water quality, and provide goods and services to local people, 3) national, regional and possibly international systems of criteria and indicators are useful in monitoring and evaluating the impact of climate change and mitigation and adaptation activities.
This Canadian study analyzes the effect forest management has on net carbon sequestration, including, as separate entities, net carbon storage in litter, soils, wood products and landfills. Five forest management activities are analyzed using two forest types (Nova Scotia Red Spruce and Coastal Douglas Fir) as examples. The following activities are analyzed: pre-commercial thinning; commercial thinning for pulp; commercial thinning for pulp and lumber; increasing the rotation length; and increasing the amount of slash used for biofuel.