Rahr Malting Company, Watershed Based Permitting

This short update states that Rahr Malting Company successfully created phosphorous reductions through nonpoint source pollution reductions. The company exceeded its permit of 150 pounds of CBOD reductions per day by completing four trades resulting in 204 pounds of reductions per day.

Atlas of International Freshwater Agreements

This is a comprehensive list and information source of historic agreements related to freshwater. With sections for each continent, tables and maps of key demographic and ecosystem information it puts the agreements in their social and environmental context. These agreements are the base from which ecosystem service transactions will build.

A Role for Effective, Efficient, and Equitable Conservation Concessions in Conserving Natural Resources in Indonesia.

In this paper, CCIF explains that conservation concessions enable host countries to capitalize on their ample supply of biodiversity-rich habitats and stimulate economic development by mimicking the payment structure of other business transactions and offer immediate, transparent protection for resources in question. The conservation community may have been quick to dismiss concessions for protected areas as a tool for developing countries. Indeed, with modifications based on local community norms, CCIF believes that concessions may be the perfect tool for conservation. By studying our competition in the commercial extraction industry, we find that we do in fact have an effective set of tools for creating protected areas. CCIF is currently designing a fund to establish and fund conservation concessions in Southeast Asia.

13 + 1: A Comparison of Global Climate Change Policy Architectures

Critically reviews the Kyoto Protocol and thirteen alternative policy architectures for addressing the threat of global climate change. The authors employ six criteria to evaluate the policy proposals: environmental outcome, dynamic efficiency, cost effectiveness, equity, flexibility in the presence of new information, and incentives for participation and compliance. The paper identifies several major themes among the alternative proposals: Kyoto is “too little, too fast”; developing countries should play a more substantial role and receive incentives to participate; implementation should focus on market-based approaches, especially those with price mechanisms; and participation and compliance incentives are inadequately addressed by most proposals. Finally, the investigation reveals tensions among several of the evaluative criteria, such as between environmental outcome and efficiency, and between cost-effectiveness and incentives for participation and compliance.

13 + 1: A Comparison of Global Climate Change Policy Architectures

Critically reviews the Kyoto Protocol and thirteen alternative policy architectures for addressing the threat of global climate change. The authors employ six criteria to evaluate the policy proposals: environmental outcome, dynamic efficiency, cost effectiveness, equity, flexibility in the presence of new information, and incentives for participation and compliance. The paper identifies several major themes among the alternative proposals: Kyoto is “too little, too fast”; developing countries should play a more substantial role and receive incentives to participate; implementation should focus on market-based approaches, especially those with price mechanisms; and participation and compliance incentives are inadequately addressed by most proposals. Finally, the investigation reveals tensions among several of the evaluative criteria, such as between environmental outcome and efficiency, and between cost-effectiveness and incentives for participation and compliance.

Carbon annuities and their potential to preserve tropical forests and slow global warming: an application for small-scale farmers

Carbon annuities have been suggested as a means for rewarding landowners for preserving forests and sequestering carbon. Although this is an intuitively appealing approach, the benefits of the sequestration activities have not been compared with the opportunity cost of preserving the forest. This paper represents an initial attempt at analysing how large carbon annuities must be to induce a landowner in the Amazonian rainforest to accept the annuity and leave the forest intact. The benefits of carbon sequestration are computed based on estimates in the literature on the carbon contained in a hectare of rainforest and the damages associated with a ton of carbon emissions. This is compared with information on household income from Rondonia, Brazil. Our results show that, for the majority of our conservative assumptions about the damages of carbon emissions, the magnitude of an annuity is greater than the income from agriculture. For less conservative assumptions about the damages from global warming, a fraction of the annuity would be a sufficient incentive for small-scale farmers to switch to sustainable techniques that leave the forest intact.

Biodiversity, Climate, and the Kyoto Protocol: Risks and Opportunities

This paper outlines the potential risks and opportunities associated with the Kyoto Climate Treaty with regards to biodiversity conservation. The authors argue that the Kyoto Protocol as currently written does little to advance solutions that benefit biodiversity, and in many ways could unwittingly promote further biodiversity loss from the kinds of projects it encourages, such as biomass monoculture plantations and hydro dams. They go on to discuss the sorts of carbon sequestration projects that have the potential to deliver impressive biodiversity and community benefits, and recommend that climate policymakers adopt rules and frameworks that will encourage the development of such “multiple benefit” projects.

Capturing Carbon and Conserving Biodiversity

In this book, ecologists, conservationists, lawyers, and atmospheric scientists detail the benefits of alternative market-based systems for reducing and sequestering the carbon emissions currently threatening the planet with global warming and the destruction of animal and human habitat. Swingland (a conservation biologist with The Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology) edits 20 chapters including electricity generation options for reduction in carbon emissions, species survival and carbon retention in commercially exploited tropical rainforest, and a legal analysis of carbon sinks and emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol. The book is most likely to appeal to the climate policy audience.

A Knowledge and Assessment Guide to Support the Development of Payment Arrangements for Watershed Ecosystem Services (PWES)

The authors contend that payments for watershed ecosystem services are frequently based of generalizations that may not be true in the watersheds where the program operates. Through tackling common myths about watershed management and looking at the need for monitoring and information collection, good science and institutional arrangements are encouraged to assure the intended results are produced from payment programs.

Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services and the UN Millennium Declaration

This paper begins to examine the close and critical relationships among: biodiversity and ecosystem services; the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD); and the goals set out in the UN Millennium Declaration, in particular the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Markets for ecosystem services: Applying the concepts

This paper explores definition and measurement of ecosystem services, development of institutions and mechanisms to facilitate trade and integration of these instruments into the broader natural resource management agenda and toolbox, all with respect to pilot markets for ecosystem services in three case study catchments. Emphasis is placed on pilot selection rationale and identification of key facilitative mechanisms and institutions.

Evaluation of the Americas Account of Colombia

This evaluation has two areas of focus: (1) a general evaluation of the Enterprise for the Americas Environment Account (Americas Account) for Colombia, and (2) an institutional evaluation of ECOFONDO and the FFEA, the two organizations that have administered the Account. However, since ECOFONDO has not managed the Americas Account since 2000, emphasis has been given to the institutional evaluation of the FFEA.

The Link Between Biodiversity and Sustainable Development: Lessons from INBio's Bioprospecting Program in Costa Rica.

This paper looks at the role of INBio's facilitation of bioprospecting to Costa Rica's quest to protect its biological wealth while simultaneously promoting the social and economic development. Gí¡mez concludes that INBio has assisted in Costa Rica's sustainable development by providing the country with vast and complex experience on access, legislation and uses of genetic and biochemical resources that facilitates the sustainable use of the country's biodiversity.

The "Sale" of Biodiversity to Nature Tourists

This OECD study explains that, when public or private natural areas charge entrance or other access fees to tourists, they in effect sell biodiversity to visitors. This market is perhaps the easiest to create in the context of natural area services, and resulting fee revenues can make substantial contributions to conservation. Indeed, tourism's financial and non-financial benefits often are important justifications for the establishment and management of natural areas. Nonetheless, many areas do not charge fees. Arguments for and against fees are described, and price responsiveness is discussed. Lastly, the conservation contribution of private reserves is reviewed.

Market-Based Instruments: The Forum Approach

"The Water Initiative is a World Economic Forum program to ""an initiative to facilitate
multistakeholder cooperation in the management of water and watersheds 'from the summit to the sea.'"" The program involves public-private partnerships that identify opportunities for payments for environmental services and the exchange of best practices. The presentation also give an overview of the Global Greenhouse Gas Register that allows companies to understand their green house gas emissions, their impacts and opportunities to reduce and offset them."

Private Property in the 21st Century: The Future of an American Ideal

Private property is central to American character, culture and democracy. America’s farmers understood it as key to the liberties the new country was designed to foster. But private property has not stood still. Over the last 200+ years, private property has changed as American society has changed. What one owns in 2003 in not what one would have owned in 1776, 1865 or 1903. How will private property continue to change in the 21st century? This question, and the challenges it offers for democracy and community, is the focus of this book.

From our forest to your medicine cabinet

International pharmaceutical companies have been collaborating with Costa Rica's National Institute of Biodiversity (INBio), in a relationship where in return for access to the country's rich trove of biological diversity as a potential source of raw materials for drugs, the firms provided INBio with extensive training and sophisticated equipment. INBio uses its expertise to help small firms in Costa Rica develop products based on sustainable use of biodiversity. With the help of a $1.6 million grant from the IDB's Multilateral Investment Fund, INBio launched the project Support to the Use of Biodiversity by Small Enterprises.

A Place in the World: A Review of the Global Debate on Tenure Security

Property rights have a profound effect on who benefits from forests. Ellsworth asserts that "the increasingly influential neoliberal property rights school of analysis 'over-emphasizes' the virtues of property rights defined in terms of market trading." Of particular worry are that market-based approaches may create new risks to tenure security, rather than alleviate them, and may lead to unfair and inefficient allocation of natural assets.

Can a Financial Instrument Improve the Management of Natural Ecosystems?

This report highlights the opportunities presented by the 2000 Amendment to the 1995 Pensions Act in the UK to improve companies' management of natural capital, including ecosystems, the services they deliver and the millions of animal and plant species that constitute biological diversity.

Financing national protected area networks internationally: the Global Environment Facility as a multilateral mechanism of transfer

This paper addresses the functioning of the present multilateral system for international financing of national protected areas. The paper claims that taken together, this system does not represent a homogenous institutional mechanism but a patchwork of several multilateral institutions and bilateral contractual relationships. The paper particularly analyses the Global Environment Facility (GEF) that serves a mechanism of transfer for the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). It looks at how the GEF creates incentives for existing and proposed networks of protection and establishes a compensation scheme at the international level.

Where the Trees are a Desert – Stories from the Ground

This emotional report by Carbon Trade Watch gives voice to Brazilians' struggles against the ever-expanding eucalyptus monoculture. The collection of articles cover the social and environmental problems associated with including mono-culture plantations in carbon trading programs, using Brazil as a case study. The authors believe that the eucalyptus plantations, which have been used for decades for paper pulp or charcoal production, are devastating the environment and lives of the local population of Brazil. They go on to argue that since the advent of "carbon trading" under the Kyoto Protocol, such damaging monocultural plantations are being encouraged.

US Power Industry and Incentive Based Mechanisms – Focus on Water Issues

In this presentation Adam Davis, working for the US based Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), reviews water related issues facing the electric power industry and gives examples of payment opportunities for landowners. He looks at incentive systems, water rights transfer markets and pollutant trading markets. He gives an interesting example of habitat creation as an alternative to offset environmental impacts of power plants.

Developing new income streams for farmers – NSW Environmental Services Scheme: Progress Report on Outcomes and Experience Developed during its Implementation

This progress report describes the experiences of the NSW Environmental Services Scheme as of 2003. The primary aim of the Environmental Services Scheme is to look at some of the practical issues that will arise in the development of a market to support the environmental services produced on-farm. These include the costs associated with including environmental services within rural production, how to define and create ownership of the services produced, and the types of financial, contractual and incentive arrangements necessary. So far, the reception from implementing agencies, landholders and the rural community, has been very positive.

A Comparison of Japanese, Canadian, and EU Policies on Forest Carbon Sinks

This report compares the approaches of the governments of Japan, Canada, and the European Union member countries toward using carbon sinks to meet their respective Kyoto Protocol carbon reduction targets. Various policies have been proposed by which governments can sequester carbon by promoting afforestation and reforestation, slowing deforestation, and undertaking forest management activities under Articles 3.3 and 3.4. Japan appears most likely to rely most heavily on forest and biological sinks to meet its Kyoto targets. For Canada, sinks are likely to play a rather modest role. For the EU, the role of sinks is likely to be even smaller, with sinks playing no role for some EU countries (including Sweden, our case study country). Although some of the details of various carbon emissions reduction programs have been worked out, the authors point out how concrete definitions are often still lacking, especially as regards impermanence of forests, additionality, leakage, and socioeconomic and environmental impacts.

Annex 1 Parties’ current and potential CER demand

This Canadian study analyzes the effect forest management has on net carbon sequestration, including, as separate entities, net carbon storage in litter, soils, wood products and landfills. Five forest management activities are analyzed using two forest types (Nova Scotia Red Spruce and Coastal Douglas Fir) as examples. The following activities are analyzed: pre-commercial thinning; commercial thinning for pulp; commercial thinning for pulp and lumber; increasing the rotation length; and increasing the amount of slash used for biofuel.

A Comparison of Japanese, Canadian, and EU Policies on Forest Carbon Sinks

This report compares the approaches of the governments of Japan, Canada, and the European Union member countries toward using carbon sinks to meet their respective Kyoto Protocol carbon reduction targets. Various policies have been proposed by which governments can sequester carbon by promoting afforestation and reforestation, slowing deforestation, and undertaking forest management activities under Articles 3.3 and 3.4. Japan appears most likely to rely most heavily on forest and biological sinks to meet its Kyoto targets. For Canada, sinks are likely to play a rather modest role. For the EU, the role of sinks is likely to be even smaller, with sinks playing no role for some EU countries (including Sweden, our case study country). Although some of the details of various carbon emissions reduction programs have been worked out, the authors point out how concrete definitions are often still lacking, especially as regards impermanence of forests, additionality, leakage, and socioeconomic and environmental impacts.

Annex 1 Parties’ current and potential CER demand

Examines demand for Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs) under the Kyoto Protocol. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of Annex I countries’ current and projected distance from their respective Kyoto target, and documents their current policy regarding how they intend to make use of CERs to meet their commitments. Reviews and analyses key Annex I countries’ existing agreements or MoUs on CDM projects with non-Annex I countries, as well as outlining project and price expectations, and other preferences relating to choice of host countries. Finally, the paper provides an overview of established and emerging initiatives (tenders etc.) taken by Annex I government with the aim of acquiring CERs.

Water Quality Trading Frequently Asked Questions for Clean Water Services Permit

This is one of several documents regarding the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality's watershed-based waste discharge for Clean Water Services. The set of documents, including the NPDES permit itself, show the types of documents and issues that must be addressed when establishing tradable pollutant credits. The focus of this document is on temperature and oxygen demand parameters.