Atlas of International Freshwater Agreements

This is a comprehensive list and information source of historic agreements related to freshwater. With sections for each continent, tables and maps of key demographic and ecosystem information it puts the agreements in their social and environmental context. These agreements are the base from which ecosystem service transactions will build.

A Role for Effective, Efficient, and Equitable Conservation Concessions in Conserving Natural Resources in Indonesia.

In this paper, CCIF explains that conservation concessions enable host countries to capitalize on their ample supply of biodiversity-rich habitats and stimulate economic development by mimicking the payment structure of other business transactions and offer immediate, transparent protection for resources in question. The conservation community may have been quick to dismiss concessions for protected areas as a tool for developing countries. Indeed, with modifications based on local community norms, CCIF believes that concessions may be the perfect tool for conservation. By studying our competition in the commercial extraction industry, we find that we do in fact have an effective set of tools for creating protected areas. CCIF is currently designing a fund to establish and fund conservation concessions in Southeast Asia.

A Knowledge and Assessment Guide to Support the Development of Payment Arrangements for Watershed Ecosystem Services (PWES)

The authors contend that payments for watershed ecosystem services are frequently based of generalizations that may not be true in the watersheds where the program operates. Through tackling common myths about watershed management and looking at the need for monitoring and information collection, good science and institutional arrangements are encouraged to assure the intended results are produced from payment programs.

Market-Based Instruments: The Forum Approach

"The Water Initiative is a World Economic Forum program to ""an initiative to facilitate
multistakeholder cooperation in the management of water and watersheds 'from the summit to the sea.'"" The program involves public-private partnerships that identify opportunities for payments for environmental services and the exchange of best practices. The presentation also give an overview of the Global Greenhouse Gas Register that allows companies to understand their green house gas emissions, their impacts and opportunities to reduce and offset them."

Beyond Carbon Emerging Nexus Emerging Nexus Solar

Through examples and conceptual diagrams WorldWater Corporation presents the opportunity to combined solar energy and water pumping to provide water where it is currently unavailable, give added security to water treatment and supply plants for industrialized utilities and reduce pumping costs and emissions from diesel generators used by farmers. This powerful concept is demonstrated through projects in the Philippines and California. This basic concept shows the applicability for diverse settings, including a payment driven mechanism for the rural poor.

Selling Forest Environmental Services: Market-based Mechanisms for Conservation and Development

Two environmental economists with the International Institute for Environment and Development and Pagiola (an environmental economist with the World Bank) are the editors and among the authors of this collection of 15 essays in this book. The papers present case studies of the application of market-based mechanisms for watershed management, biodiversity, forest carbon, and other resources, in countries that include the US, Canada, Australia, India, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Chile, Panama, and Brazil. The book demonstrates how payment systems can be established in practice, their effectiveness and their implications for the poor.

Water Issues in the Asian-Pacific Region

This conceptual presentation by the Lead Water Resource Specialist at the Asian Development Bank outlines the water related social problems in Asia. The presentation outlines the policy behind the Asian Development Bank's Water for All program. It also makes reference to significant studies and initiatives related to watershed management in Asia.

Rewarding the Upland Poor for Environmental Services: A Review of Initiatives from Developed Countries

Developed countries have already established a number of mechanisms to implement environmental transfers either within their own country, or towards other countries, including developing nations. This review looks at a number such of mechanisms with a common matrix of analysis and tries to draw lessons for the design of RUPES mechanisms in Asia. All these mechanisms have been designed to provide reward to farmers for environmental services, and this report focuses on the ones which were clearly targeting upland farmers.

Do Stock Markets Penalise Environment-Unfriendly Behaviour?

A growing body of research suggests that capital markets react to environmental news and thus create incentives for pollution control in both developed and emerging market economies. The use of the market as a regulatory mechanism may be particularly important in developing countries where monitoring and enforcement capabilities are limited. A link between stock prices and firms' environmental track record provides an incentive for firms to participate in voluntary programmes to improve environmental quality.

Sharing with the Kanis: A case study from Kerala, India

This case study details the access and benefit-sharing deal set up in the late 1980's between the Tropical Botanical Garden and Research Institute (TBGRI) of Kerala, southern India, and the Kani Tribe. The Kanis introduced TBGRI to a medicinal plant in thier forest from which a drug named 'jeevani' was isolated and commercialized.

Eco-Compensation for Watershed Services in the People’s Republic of China

The People’s Republic of China (PRC) is seeking new approaches to improve water management outcomes in the face of a growing water crisis caused by ongoing pollution control and watershed management challenges. This has included numerous experiments in “eco-compensation” (which shares characteristics with payments for ecological services). This paper details progress in creating a national eco-compensation ordinance and discusses the ongoing institutional challenges in its effective development. Water is possibly the single most-pressing resource bottleneck of economic growth for the PRC over the medium term. As such, the degree to which such initiatives are ultimately successful is not only critical for the PRC but also has major ramifications for global food, fuel, and commodity markets and production chains.

Download the report here

Emissions Trading and International Competitiveness

Environmental regulatory measures, such as emissions trading system, are popular options adopted by many nations and regions, and how they affect corporate activities and behavior as well as the international competitiveness of industries is of a vital interest to stakeholders. The paper analyzes a number of previous studies on this subject and estimates international competitiveness and carbon intensities of Japanese industries through industry and product level assessment, using the methodology adopted for the analysis of EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). In addition, various options for allocating emission allowances are reviewed in terms of three trade-off factors, such as efficiency, equity and political tolerance. The paper also describes a case study on a hot rolled steel plate manufactured in Japan to determine demand function, price elasticity, substitute elasticity, and domestic and international market shares, using the statistical data on demand-supply trends and price fluctuation. The study also identifies how emissions trading system can affect demand, supply, and trade patterns of a product, and analyzes the range of carbon constraints among nations and regions, which competitor corporations in trading partner nations must face.

Download the report here

Guide to carbon market access for farmers in India

How can smallholder farmers participate and benefit from the growing carbon market? A new report by the WorldAgrofrestry Center (ICRAF) shows that through a SMART-CDM approach, farmers can engage in specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and tangible practices to qualify access to carbon markets. The report documents a project called Taking the Heat Out of Farming whereby through cooperation with livelihood programmes, smallholder farmers work together to implement 40 possible activities designed to reduce emissions or sequester carbon through tree-planting, agriculture, and energy consumption reduction activities.

Download report here

Agroforestry in REDD+: Opportunities and Challenges

Agroforestry and other tree-based systems (wood lots, afforestation) can contribute to REDD+ in two ways: 1) as part of REDD+ under certain forest definitions;  and/or 2) as part of a strategy for achieving REDD+ in landscapes. In the context of REDD+, agroforestry has the potential for reducing degradation by supplying timber and fuelwood that would otherwise be sourced from adjacent or distant forests. In fact, agroforestry has been used in several protected area landscape buffer zones and within conservation as one way of alleviating pressure on forests, thereby reducing deforestation. However, enabling market infrastructure, policies on tree rights and ownership and safeguards would be necessary for agroforestry and other tree-based systems in the landscape to effectively contribute to the goals of REDD+ and Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs).

Download brief here

Drivers and consequences of tropical forest transitions: options to bypass land degradation?

The early studies of the ASB Partnership for the Tropical Forest Margins stratified the domain for study into stages of a generic transition pathway that suggested a strongly non-linear trajectory of change. In this scheme, a phase of degradation of above-ground vegetation, based on over-logging or shortening fallow cycles in intensified swiddens can lead to a grass-fire cycle that needs special conditions to allow successful rehabilitation. Many places with current agroforestry and tree mosaics have gone through such a phase. A new review of the global literature on these ‘forest transitions’ by Meyfroidt and Lambin (2011) framed important conclusions.

Land use trajectories that avoid a low tree-cover phase and ‘bypass’ the high emission stages are often targeted in REDD+ policies; examples exist in transitions of swiddens to agroforests rather than intensive annual cropping systems degrading into grasslands with frequent fire. Changes in land tenure regime are often key to change in tree cover.

Download brief here

Building Forest Carbon Projects (Step-by-Step Overview and Guide)

Forest projects around the world are working to confront the practical challenges of reducing emissions and providing local benefits. To facilitate the development of forest projects, we have compiled strategic step-by–step guidance to emerging best practices. Drawing on the experience of the Katoomba Incubator, this series of documents helps project developers understand key technical, social, environmental, and financial issues and points the way to key tools and guidance. Composed of nine volumes, the Building Forest Carbon Projects series is best accessed first through the Step-by-Step Overview and Guide, which outlines the key steps in the project development cycle. This overview is complemented by the eight guidance documents that constitute the meat of the series, with each exploring in detail one critical aspect of forest carbon project development.

Subdocuments:

  • REDD Guidance: Technical Project Design
  • AR Guidance: Technical Project Design
  • Carbon Stock Assessment Guidance: Inventory and Monitoring Procedures
  • Community Engagement Guidance: Good Practice for Forest Carbon Projects
  • Legal Guidance: Legal and Contractual Aspects of Forest Carbon Projects
  • Business Guidance: Forest Carbon Marketing and Finance
  • Social Impacts Guidance: Key Assessment Issues for Forest Carbon Projects
  • Biodiversity Impacts Guidance: Key Assessment Issues for Forest Carbon Projects

Download the publication here.

State of Watershed Payments 2012: Executive Summary for Business

 This report benchmarks companies taking a landscape-scale approach to water risk – looking beyond  direct operations to the larger watershed context.  Business leaders from Coca-Cola to SABMiller to  Sony are experimenting with natural infrastructure  investments that address many of the operational  risks at the top of their lists – including supply disruptions  and emerging regulations – while saving money,  increasing resilience to climate and natural disaster  shocks, and improving relations with local communities.  These efforts are known as investments in  watershed services (“IWS”).

This executive summary is developed specifically for a business audience, building upon data and analysis first  presented in a more comprehensive report from Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace on the topic of  watershed investments –  Charting New Waters: State of Watershed Payments 2012. In  Charting New Waters,  we track the size, scope, and outlook for investments in watershed services and in the ecological infrastructure  from which they flow.

State of Watershed Payments 2012: Executive Summary for Business

 This report benchmarks companies taking a landscape-scale approach to water risk – looking beyond  direct operations to the larger watershed context.  Business leaders from Coca-Cola to SABMiller to  Sony are experimenting with natural infrastructure  investments that address many of the operational  risks at the top of their lists – including supply disruptions  and emerging regulations – while saving money,  increasing resilience to climate and natural disaster  shocks, and improving relations with local communities.  These efforts are known as investments in  watershed services (“IWS”).

This executive summary is developed specifically for a business audience, building upon data and analysis first  presented in a more comprehensive report from Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace on the topic of  watershed investments –  Charting New Waters: State of Watershed Payments 2012. In  Charting New Waters,  we track the size, scope, and outlook for investments in watershed services and in the ecological infrastructure  from which they flow.

Recommendations from Katoomba China-Global

Policymakers, natural resource managers, researchers, and expert practitioners from 13 Chinese provinces and 15 countries recently convened at Katoomba XVIII: Forests, Water, and People in Beijing to advance investments in natural infrastructure for water security in an urbanizing world. The setting reflected China’s global leadership in eco-compensation as well as regional opportunities to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of investments in watershed services.

Over the four-day meeting, participants presented and discussed innovative approaches from China and around the world for addressing water risk through investments in natural infrastructure. Sessions focused on innovative financing for natural infrastructure, new approaches by governments and business, managing the water-energy-food-nexus, and urban partnerships for watershed protection. Participants also delved into ongoing investments in Beijing’s watershed, focusing on efforts led by the neighboring Beijing Municipality and Hebei Province. Drawing on insights and observations during the meeting as well as experience from around the world, meeting participants developed recommendations, presented in these documents.

Charting New Waters

 The number of initiatives that protect and restore forests, wetlands, and other water-rich ecosystems has nearly doubled in just four years as governments urgently seek sustainable alternatives to costly industrial infrastructure, according to a new report from Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace.

 
“Whether you need to save water-starved China from economic ruin or protect drinking water for New York City, investing in natural resources is emerging as the most cost-efficient and effective way to secure clean water and recharge our dangerously depleted streams and aquifers,” said Michael Jenkins, Forest Trends President and CEO. “80 percent of the world is now facing significant threats to water security. We are witnessing the early stages of a global response that could transform the way we value and manage the world’s watersheds.”
 
The report, State of Watershed Payments 2012, is the second installment of the most comprehensive inventory to date of initiatives around the world that are paying individuals and communities to revive or preserve water-friendly features of the landscape. Such features include wetlands, streams, and forests that can capture, filter, and store freshwater.

REDD+ Biodiversity Safeguards: Options for Developing National Approaches

Presently, over 20 Asian countries are engaged in REDD+ readiness activities. Each of these countries is committed to promoting and supporting the ‘Cancun safeguards’ for REDD+ activities under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), in addition to delivering on national interpretations of the ‘Aichi Targets’ for the Strategic Plan (2011-2020) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Applying and adapting existing multilateral safeguards frameworks to national REDD+ strategies and action plans is one clear and tangible national response to international biodiversity safeguard commitments. This has been the focus of post-Cancun activity on safeguards for national governments and their development partners.

 
This brief explores how a national safeguard approach can be developed that will meet the International policy commitments yet remain consistent with national policy frameworks. It further discusses how SNV together with UNEP-WCMC is exploring a national safeguard approach for Vietnam.

Read more about the brief here.

Ministry of Environment, Japan’s New Mechanisms Express

New Mechanisms Express (November 2011)
http://www.mmechanisms.org/document/new_Mecha-Express/NewMechaExp_Nov2011_E.pdf

The pamphlet is included following contents.
1.       MOEJ’s Initiatives in Africa
2.       Activities of Environmental Technology Missions
3.       BOCM Feasibility Studies in the Transport Sector
4.       Learning from J-VER Experience
5.       Launch of the Official New Mechanisms Information Platform

Download the report here

USAID Research and Analysis of Carbon Rights and Institutional Mechanisms for REDD+ Benefit Distribution

While a number of researchers and organizations in the US and internationally have highlighted the potential impacts of mitigation efforts on tenure, there remains minimal information and best practice on how to practically address these issues at the field level. Emerging interventions to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and enhance forest carbon stocks (REDD+) pose potential opportunities and risks for the rights of rural populations in developing countries. In many countries, the right of local populations to benefit from REDD+ activities requires further clarification. As a result, there are lessons to be learned from countries that are progressing on REDD+ or have experience with payment for environmental services (PES). PRRGP’s work on REDD+ over the past ten months has examined 1) trends and opportunities for the devolution of rights to local populations; 2) how tenure relates to the right to benefit from REDD+ revenues, and 3) early experiences with and best practices on governance systems for benefit distribution.

Framework papers have been developed on each of these topics, as well as provide insights from country case studies in Indonesia, Nepal, Mozambique, Mexico, Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The work has resulted in the development of two tools related to a carbon rights guidebook and an analytical tool for assessing benefit distribution institutions which will be released in the coming months.  

Working papers are available on:

  • Devolution of Forest Rights and Sustainable Forest Management: A Review of Policies and Programs in 16 Developing Countries
  • Devolution of Forest Rights and Sustainable Forest Management: Country Case Studies
  • REDD+ and Carbon Rights: Lessons from the Field
  • REDD+ and Carbon Rights: Case studies from Mexico, Indonesia, Nepal, Tanzania and Mozambique
  • Institutional Mechanisms for REDD+ Framework Paper
  • Institutional Mechanisms for REDD+: Case studies from Mexico, Indonesia, Nepal, Tanzania and Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Issues Brief: Land Tenure and REDD+: Risks to Property Rights and Opportunities for Economic Growth

***Working Papers and presentations on each of the framework papers are accessible here

Feedback on the working papers is welcome and can be delivered to: matt.sommerville@tetratech.com

LEAF publishes Asian REL Workshop Proceedings

LEAF is a five year program that will continue to engage regional governments, forestry and climate mitigation specialists and universities in a technical capacity building program focused on REDD+ Readiness.   The program also works on policy and market incentives for improved forest management and land use planning, develops innovative pilot interventions, and strengthens regional platforms and mechanisms for sharing lessons learned and scaling up innovation.

View the slideshow and view the proceedings here