Environmental Regulatory Calculations Handbook

Regulatory Calculations Handbook addresses the environmental concerns of individuals by presenting the basic fundamentals of many environmental regulatory topics. Featuring an overview of the history of environmental problems, the current regulatory framework, and problems/solutions of practical problems in the field, this handbook comprehensively brings the potential calculations and information on regulations into one single-source reference.

– provides 500 solved problems, which detail how to calculate the amount of pollutant that a facility is letting go into the environment
– Includes problems and solutions that can stand alone, offering material that develops the reader's understanding of regulatory matters
– Combines information that is otherwise spread-out and difficult to consolidate quickly

Carbon Finance: The Financial Implications of Climate Change

"A timely, objective, and informative analysis of the financial opportunities and challenges presented by climate change, including a thorough description of adaptive measures and insurance products for managing risk in a carbon constrained economy."
—James R. Evans, M. Eng. P. Geo., Senior Manager, Environmental Risk Management, RBC Financial Group

"Climate change will have enormous financial implications in the years to come. How businesses and investors respond to the risks and opportunities from this issue will have an enormous rippling effect in the global economy. Sonia Labatt and Rodney White's insights and thoughtful analysis should be read by all who want to successfully navigate this global business issue."
—Andrea Moffat, Director, Corporate Programs, Ceres

"In Carbon Finance, Labatt and White present a clear and accessible description of the climate change debate and the carbon market that is developing. Climate change is becoming an important factor for many financial sector participants. The authors illustrate how challenges and opportunities will arise within the carbon market for banking, insurance, and investment activities as well as for the regulated and energy sector of the economy."
—Charles E. Kennedy, Director and Portfolio Manager, MacDougall, MacDougall & MacTier Inc.

"Climate change is the greatest environmental challenge of our generation. Its impact on the energy sector has implications for productivity and competitiveness. At the same time, environmental risk has emerged as a major challenge for corporations in the age of full disclosure. Carbon Finance explains how these disparate forces have spawned a range of financial products designed to help manage the inherent risk. It is necessary reading for corporate executives facing challenges that are unique in their business experience."
—Skip Willis, Managing Director Canadian Operations, ICF International

"In this timely publication, Labatt and White succeed in communicating the workings of carbon markets, providing simple examples and invaluable context to the new and changing mechanisms that underpin our transformation to a carbon-constrained world. Carbon Finance will be the definitive guide to this field for years to come."
—Susan McGeachie, Director, Innovest Strategic Value Advisors, Graduate Faculty Member, University of Toronto; and Jane Ambachtsheer, Principal, Mercer Investment Consulting, Graduate Faculty Member, University of Toronto

Ignition: What You Can Do to Fight Global Warming and Start a Movement

The evidence is irrefutable: global warming is real. While the debate continues about just how much damage spiking temperatures will wreak, we know the threat to our homes, health, and even way of life is dire. So why isn't America doing anything? Where is the national campaign to stop this catastrophe?

It may lie between the covers of this book. Ignition brings together some of the world's finest thinkers and advocates to jump start the ultimate green revolution. Including celebrated writers like Bill McKibben and renowned scholars like Gus Speth, as well as young activists, the authors draw on direct experience in grassroots organization, education, law, and social leadership. Their approaches are various, from building coalitions to win political battles to rallying shareholders to change corporate behavior. But they share a belief that private fears about deadly heat waves and disastrous hurricanes can translate into powerful public action.

For anyone who feels compelled to do more than change their light bulbs or occasionally carpool, Ignition is an essential guide. Combining incisive essays with success stories and web resources, the book helps readers answer the most important question we all face: "What can I do?"

Emerging Markets for Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of the Panama Canal Watershed Part I

per Haworth Press

Practical ideas provided by a case study of the Panama Canal Watershed

Exciting opportunities await the use of market mechanisms for protecting forest ecosystems. However, questions remain on how to best apply these mechanisms. Emerging Markets for Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of the Panama Canal Watershed provides an integrated, interdisciplinary methodological approach for evaluating market opportunities for watershed services, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity protection. Using the Panama Canal Watershed as a case study example, this probing resource addresses the main questions often asked about the various practical aspects of the emerging markets for ecosystem services, including quantifying value, payment structure, and equitable distribution of benefits.

Environmental issues are often at odds with economic and business concerns. Emerging Markets for Ecosystem Services examines practical strategies to integrate diverse aspects into coherent strategies that benefit all. A scientific overview of the science and current knowledge provides a solid foundation to build policy and positive direction using the Panama Canal Watershed as an example. This unique resource sheds useful light on the challenges and provides insightful recommendations for areas struggling with ecosystem issues and the application of market mechanisms. This text is extensively referenced and includes several tables to clearly illustrate data.

Emerging Markets for Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of the Panama Canal Watershed is a valuable resource for land management professionals, educators, and advanced undergraduate and graduate students.

Emerging Markets for Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of the Panama Canal Watershed Part II

per Haworth Press

Exciting opportunities await the use of market mechanisms for protecting forest ecosystems. However, questions remain on how to best apply these mechanisms. Emerging Markets for Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of the Panama Canal Watershed provides an integrated, interdisciplinary methodological approach for evaluating market opportunities for watershed services, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity protection. Using the Panama Canal Watershed as a case study example, this probing resource addresses the main questions often asked about the various practical aspects of the emerging markets for ecosystem services, including quantifying value, payment structure, and equitable distribution of benefits.

Environmental issues are often at odds with economic and business concerns. Emerging Markets for Ecosystem Services examines practical strategies to integrate diverse aspects into coherent strategies that benefit all. A scientific overview of the science and current knowledge provides a solid foundation to build policy and positive direction using the Panama Canal Watershed as an example. This unique resource sheds useful light on the challenges and provides insightful recommendations for areas struggling with ecosystem issues and the application of market mechanisms. This text is extensively referenced and includes several tables to clearly illustrate data.

Topics in Emerging Markets for Ecosystem Services include:

* an overview of carbon sequestration in natural forests, exotic plantations, native plantations, and agroforestry systems
* policy tools to help reduce barriers to selling carbon credits
* alternatives for increasing demand for land-use-based carbon sequestration
* actions to encourage land managers to protect water quantity and quality
* receiving full value of watershed protection
* approaches to bioprospecting
* sustainable tourism as a source of funding to support biodiversity conservation
* markets for eco-labeled products
* improving markets for ecosystem services in Panama

Emerging Markets for Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of the Panama Canal Watershed is a valuable resource for land management professionals, educators, and advanced undergraduate and graduate students.

Carbon Trading – A Critical Dialogue

Carbon trading has two parts. First, governments hand out free tradable rights to emit carbon dioxide to big industrial polluters, allowing them to make money from business as usual. Second, companies buy additional pollution credits from projects in the South that claim to emit less greenhouse gas than they would have without the investment. Most of the carbon credits being sold to industrialized countries come from polluting projects, such as schemes that burn methane from coal mines or waste dumps, which do little to wean the world off fossil fuels. Tree plantations claimed to absorb carbon dioxide, in addition, often drive people off their lands and destroy biological diversity without resulting in progress toward alternative energy systems.

This exhaustively-documented but highly-readable book takes a broad look at the social, political and environmental dimensions of carbon trading and investigates climate mitigation alternatives. It provides a short history of carbon trading and discusses a number of 'lessons unlearned'. Detailed case studies from ten Third World countries — Guatemala, Ecuador, Uganda, Tanzania, Costa Rica, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, South Africa and Brazil — expose the outcomes on the ground of various carbon 'offset' schemes.

The book concludes that the 'carbon trading' approach to the problem of rapid climate change is both ineffective and unjust. The bulk of fossil fuels must be left in the ground if climate chaos is to be avoided.

The full publication is available here in PDF format. To download individual chapters, follow the links below under 'Related Articles'. To order a paper copy, please contact The Corner House.

A higher-resolution version of the book, with clearer graphics, is available free at http://www.dhf.uu.se/pdffiler/DD2006_48_carbon_trading/carbon_trading_web_HQ.pdf

Moving to Markets in Environmental Regulation: Lessons from Twenty Years of Experience

Over the last decade, market-based incentives have become the regulatory tool of choice when trying to solve difficult environmental problems. Evidence of their dominance can be seen in recent proposals for addressing global warming (through an emissions trading scheme in the Kyoto Protocol) and for amending the Clean Air Act (to add a new emissions trading systems for smog precursors and mercury–the Bush administration's "Clear Skies" program). They are widely viewed as more efficient than traditional command and control regulation. This collection of essays takes a critical look at this question, and evaluates whether the promises of market-based regulation have been fulfilled.

Contributors put forth the ideas that few regulatory instruments are actually purely market-based, or purely prescriptive, and that both approaches can be systematically undermined by insufficiently careful design and by failures of monitoring and enforcement. All in all, the essays recommend future research that no longer pits one kind of approach against the other, but instead examines their interaction and compatibility. This book should appeal to academics in environmental economics and law, along with policymakers in government agencies and advocates in non-governmental organizations.

The Business of Climate Change

'The Business of Climate Change' presents an analysis of corporate responses to the climate change issue. The book describes and assesses a number of recent business approaches that help to identify effective strategies and promote the dissemination of proactive corporate practices on climate change worldwide. By identifying the factors that cause companies to pursue low-carbon strategies and support the Kyoto process, the book will also be helpful to governments in formulating policy.

The Business of Climate Change is split into four sections: 'Introduction and overview' presents a broad perspective on business and climate policies. 'Policy instruments' outlines early experiences with different types of policy instruments to curb greenhouse gas emissions, ranging from emission trading to voluntary agreements. 'Sector analysis' assesses developments within sectors of industry that are likely to play an important role in future climate policies: oil, cement, chemical, automotive and insurance. Finally, 'Case studies' discusses bottom-up initiatives to combat climate change in five different organisations.

The Business of Climate Change: Corporate Responses to Kyoto

The Business of Climate Change presents a state-of-the-art analysis of corporate responses to the climate change issue. The book describes and assesses a number of recent business approaches that will help to identify effective strategies and promote the dissemination of proactive corporate practices on climate change worldwide. By identifying the factors that cause companies to pursue low-carbon strategies and support the Kyoto process, the book will also be helpful to governments in formulating policy.

Business and industry have a crucial role to play in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. They are major emitters of greenhouse gases, and pressure is mounting for them to engage in a range of mitigation strategies, from emission inventorying and trading schemes to investments in low-carbon technologies. Behind the scenes a number of companies have started to develop strategies to curtail greenhouse gas emissions.

These strategies can be very diverse in nature. At a political level, companies try to influence policy implementation and, more specifically, to test ideas in anticipation of possible regulation on the climate change issue. At a more practical level, there are a burgeoning number of initiatives to conserve energy use in production, transportation and buildings, to develop renewable sources of energy, to measure carbon emissions and sequestration at a detailed level, and to develop various markets for trading carbon credits among companies and countries. Some technologies, such as hybrid cars and compact fluorescent lighting, are now market realities.

Common to all of these initiatives is that they operate in an environment of high complexity and uncertainty. The political implementation of the Kyoto Protocol remains uncertain and many details remain unspecified. Economic instruments such as emission trading are favoured, but their mechanisms are still hotly debated and the future price of credits is unknown. New markets for low-emission products and technologies are beginning to appear, but there are currently few regulatory drivers to assist their development. The impact of potential regulation on business will vary tremendously between companies and sectors. The fossil fuel and energy sectors fear the economics of action, while sectors such as insurance and agriculture fear the economics of inaction. Combined with the remaining uncertainties about what form climate change may take, corporate responses to reduce risks have to differentiate between sectors and have to be flexible. For individual companies, these big uncertainties demand new thinking and contingency planning.

The Business of Climate Change is split into four sections: ‘Introduction and overview’ presents a broad perspective on business and climate policies. ‘Policy instruments’ outlines early experiences with different types of policy instruments to curb greenhouse gas emissions, ranging from emission trading to voluntary agreements. ‘Sector analysis’ assesses developments within sectors of industry that are likely to play an important role in future climate policies: oil, cement, chemical, automotive and insurance. Finally, ‘Case studies’ discusses bottom-up initiatives to combat climate change in five different organisations.
This book will be essential reading for policy-makers searching for instruments that have proven business support; academics and researchers analysing the complexity of how business is responding to the challenge of climate change; and businesses wishing to learn about best practice in the sectors most likely to be seriously affected.

Emissions Trading Handbook

The Handbook, developed by the Emissions Marketing Association and Environmental Defense, is designed to be the resource of first reference on emissions trading. The Handbook walks through the emissions trading process step by step and is designed to provide a practical guide to environmental-based trading programs. Highlights include: History of Emissions Trading; Applying Emissions Trading to Other Environmental Markets; Basics of Trading; Portfolio Management, Risk Management, and Advanced Transaction Structures; and a glossary. Also available as free HTML edition or PDF download (see www.etei.org website).

The World's Water 2005-2005

In this fourth volume of his highly regarded series, The World's Water, Gleick and his research team focus on the most significant current trends worldwide: how to meet the basic needs of over 1 billion people without access to clean water, the growing controversy over public vs. private water, the role of conservation and efficiency in solving water problems, and concerns about skyrocketing bottled water use.

Conservation Finance Handbook

Writer Kim Hopper and the Trust for Public Land’s team of conservation finance experts have put together a soup-to-nuts handbook on park and conservation funding. Designed for community leaders and involved citizens, local government officials and conservation professionals, this how-to guide explains the complex process of securing federal, state, and private conservation funds and—most importantly—researching, designing, and passing a local, voter-approved conservation finance measure. This book covers a range of campaign issues, from fundraising to field organizing to legal considerations.

Forests at the Land-Atmosphere Interface

This book is about the scientific study of the interactions between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere. The authors look at this complex field that “extends in scale from the physiology of intra-leaf organelles to the meteorology and carbon sequestration of whole forest ecosystems,” as noted by the University of Edinburgh (School of GeoSciences) editors. They present 17 papers from the September 2001 conference from which this volume derived its name. Topics include the role of stomata in transpiration and leaf respiration, methods of estimating carbon sequestration, the effects of forests on mesoscale atmospheric processes, remote sensing of forest canopy characteristics, and policy making and forestry implications.

Green Trading: Commercial Opportunities for the Environment

Green Trading: Commercial Opportunities for the Environment originated from the Second Annual Green Trading Summit held in the spring of 2003. The book covers the convergence of environment and capital markets and offers new insights into carbon, renewable energy and energy efficiency (negawatt) trading written by leading practitioners in each of these fields. The author, Peter C. Fusaro, is chairman of Global Change Associates and a New York Times best selling author.

Private Property in the 21st Century: The Future of an American Ideal

Private property is central to American character, culture and democracy. America’s farmers understood it as key to the liberties the new country was designed to foster. But private property has not stood still. Over the last 200+ years, private property has changed as American society has changed. What one owns in 2003 in not what one would have owned in 1776, 1865 or 1903. How will private property continue to change in the 21st century? This question, and the challenges it offers for democracy and community, is the focus of this book.

National Environmental Accounting: Bridging the Gap Between Ecology and Economy

This book presents national environmental, or "green" accounting as it has developed in Europe and other parts of the world. It introduces the most recent methods developed through the United Nations Statistical Department and other international organizations, but bridges the gap between the superficial treatment of environmental accounting in economics textbooks and environmental literature, on the one hand, and the highly technical manuals of international organizations, on the other.

Adaptive Management for Water Resources Project Planning (2004)

This book is a portion of an overall National Academy review of the US Army Corps of Engineers water projects. It analysis the use of adaptive management to water projects, concluding that adaptive management may be a useful. Adaptive management involves integrating ongoing information collection and learning in to resource management decisions.

Health: An Ecosystem Approach

Reconciling an ecosystem’s health with the health of its human inhabitants is a new area of research, requiring input from scientists, community and interest groups, and decision-makers. This book describes this new approach, providing lessons and recommendations from various research activities. It demonstrates how decision-makers, in particular, can use the Ecohealth approach to formulate policies and solutions that are both immediately visible and sustainable over the long term.

Protecting Surface Water Quality with Conservation Easements

Conservation easements can be an effective and efficient method for protecting surface waters and drinking water supplies. This Land Trust Alliance publication was prepared with the advice of experienced easement practitioners from land trusts across the country. It includes examples from successful easement programs and samples of specific easement language that can be used to address a range of water resource protection goals and situations.

Atlas of International Freshwater Agreements

This is a comprehensive list and information source of historic agreements related to freshwater. With sections for each continent, tables and maps of key demographic and ecosystem information it puts the agreements in their social and environmental context. These agreements are the base from which ecosystem service transactions will build.

Capturing Carbon and Conserving Biodiversity

In this book, ecologists, conservationists, lawyers, and atmospheric scientists detail the benefits of alternative market-based systems for reducing and sequestering the carbon emissions currently threatening the planet with global warming and the destruction of animal and human habitat. Swingland (a conservation biologist with The Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology) edits 20 chapters including electricity generation options for reduction in carbon emissions, species survival and carbon retention in commercially exploited tropical rainforest, and a legal analysis of carbon sinks and emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol. The book is most likely to appeal to the climate policy audience.

Land Conservation Financing

Written by two of the nation’s leading experts on land conservation, Land Conservation Financing provides a comprehensive overview of successful land conservation programs — how they were created, how they are funded, and what they’ve accomplished — along with detailed case studies from across the United States. The authors present important new information on state-of-the-art conservation financing, showcasing programs in states that have become the nation’s leaders in open-space protection: California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and New Jersey. They look at key local land protection efforts by examining model programs in DeKalb County, Georgia; Douglas County, Colorado; Jacksonville, Florida; Lake County, Illinois; Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; Marin County, California; the St. Louis metro area in Missouri and Illinois, and on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The authors then examine how hundreds of communities have created hundreds of millions of dollars in funding by developing successful campaigns to win land conservation ballot measures. They offer case studies and pull together lessons learned as they lay out how to run a successful campaign

The Wealth of Nature: how mainstream economics has failed the environment

Virtually all large-scale damage to the global environment is caused by economic activities, and the vast majority of economic planners in both business and government coordinate these activities on the basis of guidelines and prescriptions from neoclassical economic theory. In this hard-hitting book, Robert Nadeau demonstrates that the claim that neoclassical economics is a science comparable to the physical sciences is totally bogus and that our failure to recognize and deal with this fact constitutes the greatest single barrier to the timely resolution of the crisis in the global environment. Nadeau makes a convincing case that the myth that neoclassical economic theory is a science has blinded us to the fact that there is absolutely no basis in this theory for accounting for the environmental impacts of economic activities or for positing viable economic solutions to environmental problems. The unfortunate result is that the manner in which we are now coordinating global economic activities is a program for ecological disaster, and we may soon arrive at the point where massive changes in the global environment will threaten the lives of billions of people. To avoid this prospect, Nadeau argues that we must develop and implement an environmentally responsible economic theory and describes how this can be accomplished.

Leasing Public Land : Policy Debates and International Experiences

Leasing public land has been advocated as a viable land tenure option for former socialist countries and other transitional economies. However, the debate about land tenure has been influenced more by ideology and preconceptions than by lessons drawn from careful study of existing leasehold systems. This new publication offers a thorough examination of public leasehold systems around the world and presents insightful recommendations for the future role of such systems. Leasehold is a flexible form of land tenure that can be designed to provide an ongoing stream of revenue to finance public infrastructure. What is crucial to the success of leasehold systems is the design and development of appropriate institutions and organizations to, among other things, clearly define property rights and values and provide for effective administration.

Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property

Realizing that defensive disclosure is not the only option for traditional knowledge holders, AAAS has created a handbook that attempts to make intellectual property protection options more understandable and readily available for traditional knowledge holders. Its goal is to help local communities understand and identify potential protection mechanisms already present in current intellectual property rights (IPRs) regimes and the public domain for traditional knowledge. In addition to introducing some basic intellectual property concepts, this handbook contains a series of exercises to help the reader to identify knowledge and classify types of knowledge, as well as cultural and interest-related aspects of that knowledge. Through a series of exercises, it is possible for traditional knowledge holders to identify whether or not intellectual property options in the current regime are relevant and/or appropriate for their knowledge.

When Nature Goes Public: The Making and Unmaking of Bioprospecting in Mexico

"Cori Hayden tracks bioprospecting's contentious new promise–and the contradictory activities generated in its name. Focusing on a contract involving Mexico's National Autonomous University, Hayden examines the practices through which researchers, plant vendors, rural collectors, indigenous cooperatives, and other actors put prospecting to work. By paying unique attention to scientific research, she provides a key to understanding which people and plants are included in the promise of 'selling biodiversity to save it'–and which are not. And she considers the consequences of linking scientific research and rural 'enfranchisement' to the logics of intellectual property."

Capturing Carbon and Conserving Biodiversity

Capturing Carbon and Conserving Biodiversity makes an overwhelming case for the maximum use of carbon sinks, particularly in the developing world. The authors – a distinguished group of ecologists, biologists, conservationists, economists, lawyers, community and tribal specialists, market-makers, financial specialists, climatologists, resource managers, atmospheric scientists, project developers and corporate fund managers – reveal in persuasive detail the benefits of a market-based system of reducing and sequestering carbon. Combined with emissions trading, this approach will maximize benefit to the rural poor and indigenous people, while promoting habitat preservation and biodiversity, watershed protection, and the mitigation of global warming. Such a strategy is the lowest cost approach, and the one most likely to succeed where central planning has failed.

Ecoagriculture: Strategies to Feed the World and Conserve Wild Biodiversity

Although food-production systems for the world's rural poor typically have had devastating effects on the planet's wealth of genes, species, and ecosystems, that need not be the case in the future. In Ecoagriculture, two of the world's leading experts on conservation and development examine the idea that agricultural landscapes can be designed more creatively to take the needs of human populations into account while also protecting, or even enhancing, biodiversity. They present a thorough overview of the innovative concept of "ecoagriculture" – the management of landscapes for both the production of food and the conservation of wild biodiversity.